U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 24 12-12-17 Neanderthals (25 pages)

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Lecture 24 12-12-17 Neanderthals



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Lecture 24 12-12-17 Neanderthals

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25
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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12 13 2017 1 Course Business Final exam Tuesday Dec 19th 6 30pm to 9 00pm Blegan Hall 255 same room as lecture 75 questions 30 older material 70 newer material since the last midterm Study guide posted Review sessions this week Grade disputes due by Dec 19th 1 12 13 2017 Homo sapiens sapiens Homo neanderthalensis Homo heidelbergensis Homo erectus Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Paranthropus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis 3 Topics Neanderthal Anatomy and Behavior Anatomy Robusticity climatic adaptation Diet Burial Care for conspecifics Material culture 4 2 12 13 2017 Neanderthals Gods or Monsters 5 History of discovery 1830 Engis cave Belgium child 1848 Forbes Quarry Gibraltar 1856 Feldhofer Cave Neander Tal valley Germany Herman Schaafhausen interpreted these bones as representing a race of primitive prehistoric people 6 3 12 13 2017 Marcellin Boule s reconstruction of the La Chapelle remains in 1911 influenced our image of Neanderthals for many decades Marcellin Boule s reconstruction 7 8 4 12 13 2017 Neanderthals are confined from Europe to Central Asia 9 Neanderthal cranial features 10 5 12 13 2017 Neanderthal morphology Average cranial capacity Female 1300 cc Male 1600 cc Above modern human average but not when scaled to body size Long low cranial vault Curved brow ridge 11 12 6 12 13 2017 Neanderthal morphology Occipital bun Large prognathic midface Cheek bones placed posteriorly relative to face Large nasal aperture Retromolar space Uniquely derived inner ear morphology 13 Modern Human Neanderthal 13 Neanderthal derived dental morphology taurodont molars 14 7 12 13 2017 Homo heidelbergensis in Europe on its way to Neanderthals 600 kya shows H heidelbergensis population in Europe differentiating towards Neanderthal features particularly the double arched supraorbital torus and midfacial prognathism 15 Neanderthal early Homo like life history NOT modern This Neanderthal who died at age 8 would have been fully mature 4 years earlier than a modern human Smith et al 2007 PNAS December 18 2007 16 8 12 13 2017 Robust postcrania Note wider pelvic basin in Neanderthal 17 Neanderthal vs Modern Hand Larger apical tufts on Neanderthals strenuous work 18 9 12 13 2017 Note more equal lengths of distal and proximal phalanx in Neanderthal Creates a stronger grasp on large objects poorer grasp at the finger tips 19 Neanderthal Body Proportions Arctic C Remember Bergmann s Allen s Rules 20 10 12 13 2017 Neanderthals as one form of the biological adaptation to the fluctuations of the Ice Age 21 Midfacial Prognathism Arctic adaptation to cold dry air To reduce drag make breathing more efficient Counter balance to occipital bun during running Genetic drift just a big nose Artifact of wider anterior dentition for tool use 22 11 12 13 2017 Midfacial Prognathism Arctic adaptation to cold dry air To reduce drag make breathing more efficient Counter balance to occipital bun during running Genetic drift just a big nose Artifact of wider anterior dentition for tool use 23 Neanderthal labial incisor wear 24 12 12 13 2017 Analogy of teeth as tools seen in modern humans 25 As well as seen in early Homo erectus from Dmanisi 26 13 12 13 2017 Neanderthal Strength 30 more muscle than modern of equal height 15 more mass than modern human 3 360 4 480 kcal per day to support winter foraging Neaderthals 2 350 kcal per day to support winter foraging modern humans 27 Skeletal evidence for a more strenuous life 28 14 12 13 2017 Berger Trinkaus 1995 Patterns of Trauma among Neanderthals 29 Berger Trinkaus 1995 Modern Rodeo Riders 30 15 12 13 2017 The evidence suggests frequent close encounters with large ungulates unkindly disposed to the humans involved Berger Trinkaus 1995 ambush hunting Early Anatomically Modern Humans too 31 Neanderthals were clearly hunting Bones present are often the meatiest Stone tool cut marks suggest Neanderthals had first access to the meat But prey did not require complex technology to acquire No small mobile animals that require nets traps or true projectile technology This is very different from current foragers 32 16 12 13 2017 Lev et al 2005 Kebara Cave Neanderthal burnt macrobotanical remains 33 Starch grains found in dental calculus tartar hardened plaque from Neanderthals from Shanidar Iraq and Spy Belgium Starch grains include date palms grass seeds legumes Some show evidence of having been cooked Henry et al 2010 PNAS 34 17 12 13 2017 Emergence of Anatomically Modern Humans Neanderthal Amud 1 Early Modern Qafzeh 9 35 92 000 years ago 36 18 12 13 2017 Color selection is for redder ochre out of proportion to the geological sources near Qafzeh Israel 37 Symbolism of Social Artifacts among Modern Humans fairly abundant Nassarius kraussianus shell beads from Blombos Cave 70 kya in South Africa 38 19 12 13 2017 Symbolic behavior among Neanderthals 200 30 kya very scanty and fairly late Shell painted with ochre at Cueva Ant n Spain 50 kya The Tata pebble Hungary Pierced shells at Cueva de los Aviones Spain 50 kya 39 Manganese Oxides for Decoration Reconstruction of a Neanderthal 40 20 12 13 2017 41 The sublime use of symbols by Modern Humans Chauvet Cave France 38 ka flute in modern human Aurignacian culture Germany 42 21 12 13 2017 Archaeological evidence for language symbols this evidence supports a late emergence of language In a H sapiens context In a Neanderthal context 43 How do you see Symbolic Behavior in Archaeology Absence of evidence is not necessarily evidence of absence due to biased preservation Neanderthals as the first and second of the Three Little Pigs BUT it IS a choice to make a symbol that outlasts the maker Symbolic revolution can thus be only a social revolution in the USE of symbols not the cognitive ability to make them 44 22 12 13 2017 Burial of the Dead Homo Neanderthalensis Maybe Probably not Homo sapiens Clear evidence for burial 45 Care for others Good evidence that Neanderthals cared for sick old and injured 46 23 12 13 2017 Behavioral Innovations within the African Middle Stone Age 280 20 kya Continuous innovations in Africa shows gradual EVOLUTION NOT Revolution This shows that these changes did not arise as a package but later look like a package when found outside of Africa 47 Complex hard organic technology in Middle Stone Age Katanda D R Congo 174 82 kya Barbed bone points 48 24 12 13 2017 Varied stone point styles in the MSA McBrearty Brooks 2000 49 25


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