U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 23 12-5-17 Mid Pleistocene Homo (19 pages)

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Lecture 23 12-5-17 Mid Pleistocene Homo



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Lecture 23 12-5-17 Mid Pleistocene Homo

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Pages:
19
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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12 6 2017 Pliocene transport of rock during the Oldowan for stone tools was 2 3 miles up to 8 miles max Transport of rock during the Early Middle Pleistocene during the Acheulean jumps to a mean of 8 miles over 50 miles max Another jump in planning depth beyond that of Oldowan hominins 2 1 12 6 2017 H Heidelbergensis as the catch all for Middle Pleistocene Hominin descendants of H erectus Roughly 900 200 kya Increased brain size from H erectus up to 1390 cc Shares some derived features with living humans Retains some primitive H erectus features Still NOT modern human life history pattern body grows slightly faster than us Low life expectancy compared to modern humans Hard bodily labor Some split H heidelbergenis H rhodesiensis Africa H heidelbergenis Europe 3 H heidelbergensis Africa S Europe KNM ER 3733 H Erectus East Africa 4 2 12 6 2017 Defining Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens Large and gracile skull Rounded cranium Large pyramidal mastoid process Small face Canine fossa Chin Long lower limbs 5 African H heidelbergensis Kabwe Broken Hill Zambia Archaic Homo sapiens Robust supraorbital torus Occipital torus 1280 cc brain At least 400 kya 6 3 12 6 2017 H heidelbergensis from Europe 7 7 Is there nothing more interesting to say about H heidelbergensis 8 4 12 6 2017 Site of Sima de los Huesos Atapuerca Spain 600 kya 32 individuals 1390 cc braincase Variable population 9 Sima de los Huesos Atapuerca Spain 600 kya 32 individuals allows more robust statistical tests of body size sexual dimorphism First evidence for reduced sexual dimorphism similar to modern humans 10 5 12 6 2017 Middle Pleistocene a period of huge research potential Evolution of the human pair bond 11 Guess which one is true almost 12 6 12 6 2017 Summer 2004 13 Homo floresiensis Found at the Cave site of Liang Bua Flores Indonesia 14 7 12 6 2017 Homo floresiensis now known to date between 100 60 ka contra textbook Crossing the Wallace Line red above would have necessitated a water crossing P brown 15 Homo floresiensis between 100 60 ka The unfortunately named Hobbit People 16 8 12 6 2017 Brain size fits a very primitive trajectory 17 Simulating a scaled down H erectus d simulated configuration Baab McNulty 2009 Journal of Human Evolution 18 9 12 6 2017 An allometric model predicts that a very small fossil hominin would look like the Flores Hobbits Arch H sapiens Modern humans PC 2 27 H erectus gorillas Dmanisi ER 1813 Liang Bua chimpanzees bonobos PC 1 63 19 Baab McNulty 2009 Journal of Human Evolution Homo floresiensis 100 60 kya descendents of Homo erectus subjected to island dwarfism P brown 20 10 12 6 2017 Homo sapiens sapiens Homo floresiensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo heidelbergensis Homo erectus Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Paranthropus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis 21 Neanderthal Anatomy Behavior 22 11 12 6 2017 Homo sapiens sapiens Homo neanderthalensis Homo heidelbergensis Homo erectus Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Paranthropus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis 23 Topics Neanderthal Anatomy and Behavior Robusticity climatic adaptation Diet Burial Care for conspecifics Material culture 24 12 12 6 2017 Neanderthals Gods or Monsters 25 History of discovery 1830 Engis cave Belgium child 1848 Forbes Quarry Gibraltar 1856 Feldhofer Cave Neander Tal valley Germany Herman Schaafhausen interpreted these bones as representing a race of primitive prehistoric people 26 13 12 6 2017 Marcellin Boule s reconstruction of the La Chapelle remains in 1911 influenced our image of Neanderthals for many decades Marcellin Boule s reconstruction 27 Neanderthals are confined from Europe to Central Asia 28 14 12 6 2017 Neanderthal morphology Average cranial capacity Female 1300 cc Male 1600 cc Well above modern human average but not when scaled to body size Long low cranial vault Curved brow ridge 29 Neanderthal cranial features 30 15 12 6 2017 31 Neanderthal morphology Occipital bun Large prognathic midface Cheek bones placed posteriorly relative to face Large nasal aperture Retromolar space Uniquely derived inner ear morphology 32 Modern Human Neanderthal 32 16 12 6 2017 Neanderthal derived dental morphology taurodont molars 33 Homo heidelbergensis in Europe on its way to Neanderthals 600 kya shows H heidelbergensis population in Europe differentiating towards Neanderthal features particularly the double arched supraorbital torus and midfacial prognathism 34 17 12 6 2017 Neanderthal early Homo like life history NOT modern This Neanderthal who died at age 8 would have been fully mature 4 years earlier than a modern human Smith et al 2007 PNAS December 18 2007 35 Robust postcrania Note wider pelvic basin in Neanderthal 36 18 12 6 2017 Neanderthal vs Modern Hand Larger apical tufts on Neanderthals strenuous work 37 Note more equal lengths of distal and proximal phalanx in Neanderthal Creates a stronger grasp on large objects poorer grasp at the finger tips 38 19


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