U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 9 10-3-17 Population Genetics (31 pages)

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Lecture 9 10-3-17 Population Genetics



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Lecture 9 10-3-17 Population Genetics

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31
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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10 4 2017 Course Business Midterm 1 Tuesday 10 10 Material covered on the midterm Lectures weeks 1 5 Labs 1 4 Textbook ch 1 4 14 50 objective questions Multiple choice True false Matching Study guide will be posted this week 2 1 10 4 2017 Creating Evolutionary or Phylogenetic Trees Shared Derived Convergence Derived Ancestral 3 Loss of tail Loss of premolar Full orbital convergence Warm blooded Warm blooded Hair color Premolar Tail yes tan 3 yes yes yes yes grey black orange 2 2 2 yes no no 4 2 10 4 2017 Cladistics Primitive or Ancestral characters even though homologous do not help in sorting relationships Unique characters do not help in sorting relationships Only SHARED DERIVED characters can sort relationships within a group 5 Darwin s 5 theories regarding evolution 1 Species change evolution as such 2 All organisms share a common ancestry 3 Evolution is gradual 4 Evolution leads to speciation 5 Evolution occurs through Natural Selection 6 3 10 4 2017 Darwin s Radical Idea Complexity of organisms and ecosystems are merely byproducts of individual animals struggling to optimize their reproductive success in their local environment 7 This can be a HORRIFICALLY dangerous idea if you commit the following fallacies 8 4 10 4 2017 Most Frequent Problem 1 the Fallacy of Evolution as Progress 9 African Elephant vs Pleistocene Eurasian Mammoth 10 5 10 4 2017 Problem 2 Why is Natural Selection not about the Survival of the Fittest 11 Herbert Spencer 18201903 Spencer s arguments on society mirroring biology led to the theory of Social Darwinism which had nothing to do with Darwin s arguments at all 12 6 10 4 2017 Social Darwinism The belief that helping the poor and sick would get in the way of evolution which depends on the survival of the fittest led in the 1920s directly to Eugenics artificial selection on human populations as governmental policy in the US Britain Sweden and Germany leading eventually to Nazi Germany s Final Solution to murder 11 million people in poison gas chambers and machine gun executions 13 Let us understand once and for all that ethical progress of society depends not on imitating the cosmic process of natural selection still less running away from it but in combating it Thomas H Huxley 14 7 10 4 2017 Problem 3 The Naturalistic Fallacy the idea that what is natural is morally justifiable and the inverse 15 Our Natural Habitat or an Alien Environment 16 8 10 4 2017 Nature Morality Natural Unnatural Good Bad 17 Nature Morality Natural Unnatural Good Babies Knowledge Love Novels Health care Craft specialization Bad Epidemics Famine Extinctions Parasitism Human slavery Pollution Nuclear weapons 18 9 10 4 2017 The Consequences of Darwin s Radical Idea We have the choice to apply whatever system of morality we wish the ultimate free will 19 ALA 5 Jefferson s Blood A demonstration of the mutability of race and the confusion of cultural behavior biological traits and misunderstandings of variation 20 10 10 4 2017 21 22 11 10 4 2017 23 24 12 10 4 2017 25 ALA 5 Take home Assignment on Jefferson s Blood Within one page of single spaced text 12 point font discuss the issues facing Amelia Cooper after her discovery that she is a descendent of Thomas Jefferson and his slave Sally Hemings How do these issues relate to biological descent biological phenotypic variability cultural variables of identity community Turn in at lecture on Tuesday 10 17 17 26 13 10 4 2017 Population Genetics 27 Tasks for Today How population genetics can identify Natural Selection in action Balanced Polymorphisms ex sickle cell anemia Modern human variation human adaptation to local climate skin color body form high altitude norm of reaction vs adaptation lactose tolerance 28 14 10 4 2017 Sickle Cell Anemia Hemoglobin is coded for by the allele HbA Some individuals have a variant HbS which is seriously deleterious in the homozygous state life expectancy only 45 years Heterozygotes are carriers and healthy under normal conditions Sickling only occurs under severe levels of low oxygen i e severe athletics 29 Sickle cell anemia caused by point mutation Adenine base not thymine Uracil base Valine amino acid 30 15 10 4 2017 Consequences of sickle allele 31 We might expect that this allele would be eliminated because of its lethal effects Yet in some populations the allele frequency reaches 5 20 Why 32 16 10 4 2017 33 Mosquitoes the vector for Plasmodium the protozoan parasite that causes falciparum malaria London School of Hygiene Photo Researchers Inc 34 17 10 4 2017 Sickle allele as a Balanced Polymorphism S allele selected for in tropical environments because the heterozygotes have the highest fitness in malarial environments 14 Total number of deaths due to malaria sickle cell anemia 13 deaths 100 12 11 10 3 89E 16 0 05 0 1 0 15 0 2 0 25 0 3 frequency of sickle cell allele Adapted from Mielke et al 2006 35 Hemoglobin E Sickling Allele Another variant is HbE Also single point mutation Found in southeast Asia Homozygotes not selected against as severely as HbS but there is favored selection in heterozygotes these areas also have malaria risk 36 18 10 4 2017 Any Questions 37 Human Skin Unique features Largest organ of the body Lack of visible hair Sweat glands Pigmented Functions Protection Regulates body temperature Detects info about the environment Plays a role in vitamin D production 38 19 10 4 2017 Skin Structure Epidermis Melanocytes More melanin produced darker skin Dermis Hair follicles Sweat glands Blood vessels Nerves 39 Human Variation Skin Color 40 20 10 4 2017 41 Questions 1 Why is darker skin more adaptive at or near the equator 2 Why did skin color become lighter farther away from the equator 3 Is the same explanation responsible for 1 2 or did different selective factors operate at different latitudes 42 21 10 4 2017 Problems with too much sun Sunburn Severe complications Skin cancer Rates decrease away from the equator Melanin produced in greater amounts by individuals with darker skin protects from dangerous effects of UV rays 43 Problems with too much sun Folate a B vitamin degradation B vitamin essential for DNA synthesis cell replication UV radiation exposure causes a breakdown of folate in the bloodstream Deficiencies in folate during pregnancy cause neural tube defects Darker skin may have been selected for in order to avoid folate degradation 44 22 10 4 2017 Problems with too LITTLE sun Vitamin D deficiency Aids in calcium metabolism is necessary for normal bone development


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