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FSU CLT 3378 - Rig Veda

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Rig Veda

Rig Veda

28 pages

Exam 1

Exam 1

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Exam 2

Exam 2

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Oedipus

Oedipus

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Oedipus

Oedipus

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Lecture OutlinesRig VedaI. Rig Vedaa) oldest literary work of Indiab) composed1. c. 1700-1100 BCE2. Early form of the Sanskrit3. Sanskrit = Indo-European languageindo European started out in eastern Europe and around 3000 BCE they started to move west into Europe and east as far as Indiaindo= India/ European= Europec) oral for centuries, then written downwe don’t know how long they existed in oral form before thatd) 1028 hymns to gods, arranged in 10 bookseach poem is a hymn to a god/ addressed to a gode) rig (Sanskrit for “praise”) + Veda (Sanskrit “knowledge”) f) Vedic people = composed Rig Vedag) later, Rig Veda1. Came to become sacred to Hindus- but were not going to talk about the Hindu reception of the rig Veda; only talk about the Vedic people2. earliest of four Vedash) cf. Israelite scriptures = sacred to Jews and Christians II. Vedic godsa) Agni1. agni = “fire” (cf. Latin ignis= fire)= cognate/related2. binatural (tangible thing + god)3. fire (heat, light)a. natural = fire, lightning, sunb. domestic = hearth at your housec. ritual = sacrifice (cf. 1.1 is addressed to Agni as the god of sacrifice)d. funereal = crematione. poetry (light)b) Soma1. deified sacred drink2. binatural (tangible thing + god)3. somaa. hallucinogenic drinkb. unknown plant (unknown plant that grew high in the mts.)c. drank by gods (and priests)d. drinking soma reinforced vitality, immortality/strength (gods)e. poetry (vision)4. effectsa. fear1) 8.79.7: “Be kind and merciful to us.”- scary because you don’t know what soma is going to make you dob. exultation/exhilaration:10.119.12: “I am huge, huge! Flying to the cloud.”c) Indra1. Vedic king of gods2. god of thunder and war (storm god)3. rain, fertility4. avid drinker of soma5. poet/seer (cf. Agni, Soma) all by himself- model= we want to b like “indra” because he too is a poet/seer III. Birth/Childhood of Indra (4.18)a) dialogue (Indra and mother)b) mother = Aditi?; father = Tvashtr?His mother/father is not named in this poem but in some poems she/he has a namec) can spot Indo-European mythology that weve already seen1. child kept unborn2. kills father3. cf. Kronos who swallows them and the children that he swallows then zeus makes him throw them back upd) Indra kept in womb by her mother because she fears for indras life (cf. Gaia- ouranos stuffs him back inside her)e) bursts out mother’s sidef) kills father IV. Killing of Vritra (1.32)a) Vritra = dragon/serpentb) holds back watersc) Indra attacks vritra with thunderbolts and defeats himd) with all water he was holing back before rivers are created (cf. Tiamat- both serpents, after the storm god (timat/Vritra) is killed the fresh water is created)e) storm god vs. dragon V. Sarama and the Panis (10.108)a) Sarama = Indra’s dog/loyal companionb) Panis = demonsc) beyond river Rasa1. Rasa = encircles heaven/earth (gods/humans)2. demons live beyond that river3. cf. Okeanos (different from rasa because okeanos surrounds just the earth)d) Panis = stole cattle of Angirases (family of sages)e) Sarama tracks down cattle to where the Panis are and the Panis are trying to bribe Saramaf) Sarama resists bribes of Panis VI. Creation Myths a) Creation (10.129)1. enigmatic2. Start out with primordial waters in this poem3. creation inititated but no one knows how it started; just getting the ball rollinga. “What stirred?” (10.129.1)b. “That one breathed” (10.129.2)- who is that one? Doesn’t say but still getting the ball rolling4. gods not yet born- so who is breathing/stirringb) Golden Embryo (10.121)1. unknown creator god2. referred to as Hiranyagarbhaa. “gold” (hirany)b. “womb/seed/embryo/egg” (garbha)metaphorical- golden/brilliant and seed/womb/embryo because he’s a creator god3. 10.121.10a. god named as Prajapati (creator god) but not named in the poemb. later addition to answer the insistent questioning of who this poem is addressed to4. Golden Embryoa. arises from primordial waters (7)- again have primordial watersb. creates waters (9)- another distinguishing characteristic because there’s internal contradictions: how can you arise from the waters but then create them?c. separates earth, sky (1, 5)d. creates earth, sky (9)- another internal contradiction because you cant separate them then create themc) Purusha (10.90)1. Purusha = cosmic giant/primeval male- not a human being2. Dismembered Purusha by creator god3. Used Purusha’s body to create universe (cf. Ymir)- that’s how big he is4. earth, sky, gods, humans, animals are formed out of his body (purusha)5. Purusha is the first sacrifice when hes killed by the creator god= both the sacrifice and the recipient of the sacrifice in this poema) Purusha as object of sacrificeb) Purusha as recipient of hymnd) Aditi and Birth of Gods (10.72)1. Aditi = female creative force/infinity2. gives birth to earth (which bears sky)3. Daksha = male creative force1. Aditi gives birth to Daksha2. he gives birth to her4. sun found in water5. Aditi = bears gods a) 8 sonsb) Martanda (sun) rejected by Aditi because hes defective = because he dies everynightinternal contradiction= sun bing found in water but then is born later from Aditi VII. A Myth of the Afterlife = Yama (10.14)a) Yama1. king of dead in Vedic Mythology2. Started out as human being- first mortal to reach death realm (in heaven)3. path maker for humansb) two dogs1. four-eyed= look in every direction2. guard path to death realm (cf. Cerberus= 3 heads)frightening because people don’t want the dogs to hurt themc) Three Days of Soma1. after cremationa) fire burns (3 days)b) soma offered2. soul travels path to afterlife realmhave to keep fire and soma going until your soul reaches afterlife realmI. Binding of Fenrir, the wolfa) raised by Æsir (prophecy)b) Fenrir grown; gods bind himc) breaks first two fettersenormous chains so Fenrir knows somethings up because the third one is so small so why isn’t it biggerd) third fetter = Gleipnir; thin (dwarves)master craftsmen and made this magically thin fetter called Gleipniryet another example about how Germanic people name objectse) Fenrir: one of your gods has to put their hand in mouth to show good faithFenrir is so big that they are all scared to do this except for Tyrf) only Tyr dares while they put Gleipnir around Fenrir’s neckg) Fenrir held by Gleipnir; bites off Tyr’s


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