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FSU CLT 3378 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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CLT 3378-04 (Ancient Mythology) Exam 2 Study GuidePandora (Greek Myth)• Pandora:  First woman Name means “all gifts” (pan=all; dora=gifts), although this is a false etymology In “Works and Days”, Pandora opens a jar→ releases evil into the world In “Theogony”, she is unnamed; the woman herself is the source of evil• Works and Days:  Author: Hesiod Didactic (moral) Farmer’s almanac Folk wisdom Represents a misogynistic (hatred of women) strain in Greek literature • Didactic: Moral: tries to teach you how to be a good person Works and Days• Misogynistic: as listed above• Hephaestus/Hephaestus:  Blacksmith god Works and Days: forms Pandora out of clay and water Theogony: makes a golden crown(complete with life-like animals) for the woman Are the animals meant to represent the deceptive and artificial nature of woman? (the animals look real but are really not; woman looks good but she is really evil)• Epimetheus: Name means “afterthought” Brother of Prometheus Prometheus warns Epimetheus not to accept any gifts from Zeus→ foolish Epimetheus accepts Zeus’ gift of Pandora• Pyxis: “Box” Clay vessel; life-size; decorated Mistranslated by Erasmus in 1600 CE (hence the common phrase “Pandora’s Box”)• Pithos: “Jar” Life-size storage jars Hesiod’s intended word (“jar” instead of “box”)• Hope: Only thing left in the “pithos” after evil escapes Is hope present or absent in the world?• Kalon Kakon: Hesiod’s term for women “Beautiful Evil”: a paradox• Myth of the Races: Devolution of people One of Hesiod’s explanations for why life is hard (the other being Pandora; both explanations juxtaposed) Gold Age/Silver Age/Bronze Age/Race of Heroes/Iron Age Does not fit with the other ages• Race of Heroes: No decline in people Myth as history (wealthy Greeks traced back their lineage to these heroes) Doesn’t fit with the other ages Heracles/Perseus/Achilles/etc.Prometheus (Greek)Background Reading• Athens: Greek polis, or city-state Repelled a Persian invasion of Greece during the Persian Wars (490, 480-479) Headed the defensive alliance of Poleis, the Delian League, formed to prevent the island states from falling under Persian domination Used their wealth to build a variety of famous buildings, such as the Parthenon• Agonistic: “Competitive” As demonstrated by the Greek tragic competitions• Tragedy: Performed at yearly festivals in honor of the god Dionysus Tragedians competed against one another, having to write three tragedies plus a satyr play• Satyr Place: Comic play based on a mythological story Rarely historical Satyrs provided the chorus• Trilogy: Author: Aeschylus Prometheus Bound: the myth we read Prometheus Unbound: few fragments preserved, Prometheus likely freed from chains Prometheus the Fire-Bringer: essentially just a name to usTheogony/Prometheus Bound• Titans: Children of Gaia and Ouranos• Iapetos: Titan The father of Prometheus• Gaia: Earth Goddess Mother of titans Grandmother of Prometheus• Ouranos: Sky god Father of titans Grandfather of Prometheus• Atlas: Brother of Prometheus Punished by Zeus-sky supporter• Menoitios: Brother of Prometheus Punished by Zeus- thrown into Tartaros (arrogant)• Mecone/Sicyon: The place where men and gods divide up an ox to sacrifice to Zeus (ask Prometheus for advice on which portions are due each side)• Fennel Stalk(pith): Prometheus steals fire, kept in this stalk Can be used to start a fireAeschylus/ Prometheus Bound • Aeschylus: Author of the Prometheus trilogy Famous Greek tragedian• Prometheus Bound: Play that recalls Prometheus’s imprisonment by Zeus for giving humans fire• Culture Hero: Prometheus as a culture hero (gives fire to humans→ punished by the tyrant Zeus) Presents Prometheus as a victim (as opposed to more of a trickster in Theogony)• Metis: Zeus’ first spouse Binatural goddess of cleverness Swallowed by Zeus to avoid prophecy• Typhois/Typhon: Dragon that threatens Zeus’ rule Cf. fate with Metis: Zeus wants to sleep with a sea nymph but prophecy says her child will be stronger than the father• Metallurgy: Tools One of the things that Prometheus gives to civilization• Prometheus Unbound: Prometheus released? Reconciliation with Zeus?• Kratos and Bia: “Power” and “Force”, respectively Zeus’ henchmen; order Hephaestus to chain Prometheus to a cliff• Okeanids: Chorus of play Daughters of the Ocean• Okeanos: Zeus sympathizer Fresh water encircling Earth Depicted in art wearing horns (Greek river gods= horns)• Io: Human girl that Zeus wants to sleep with Transformed into cow by Zeus to hide her from Hera (Zeus’s wife) Guarded by Argos (killed by Hermes) Hera sends a gadfly to chase and sting IoRaven/Coyote (Native American)• Native American: Preserved the stories of Raven and Coyote orally• Raven: Creator (of world) Distributor: sun/moon/water/fire/female genitals/water/fog Trickster (disguise; malleable body; raven as animal/man/god) Creates animals Raven distinguishes salmon/bears/herring as food Raven causes a flood and creates a new race of people out of leaves• Tlingit: People of Alaska and northwest Canada Christianized in the early 20th century, especially with the help of ethnographer John R. Swanton• Nass River: Origin of Tlingit people? The rich man who possesses the sun and moon lives up the Nass River• Kit-ka’ositiyi-qa: The Father of Raven; a god• Petrel: Controls fresh water at spring Raven tricks him and then redistributes water into rivers Controls fog (once again taken by Raven)• Coyote: Trickster →challenges Thunder to a game of dice (if he wins, thunder agrees to give Coyote fire) →Coyote cheats and wins→ Thunder agrees to give fire to Coyote, but also intends to kill Coyote→Thunder throws rock(contains fire) at Coyote→Coyote takes off skin to avoid being hit→Rock misses Coyote and breaks on the ground→animals distribute fire around the world• Klamath: People of Oregon/Klamath Lake Spread the oral tradition of Coyote• Thunder: Keeper of fire in white rock• Aetiology: Mythological explanation


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