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FSU HUN 1201 - FINAL STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1:Explain the different types of nutrients.Organic vs. inorganicOrganic- contains carbon such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitaminsInorganic- does not contain carbon such as minerals and waterMacronutrientsCarbohydratesFuel for the body, especially for neurologic functioning and physical exerciseLipidsInsoluble in waterInclude triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterolsEnergy source during rest or low- to moderate-intensity exerciseStored as adipose tissue (body fat)Provide fat-soluble vitaminsProteinsPrimarily in meat, dairy, seeds, nuts, and legumesSmall amounts are found in vegetables and whole grainsMicronutrientsVitamins- assist in regulating body processesRequired in smaller amountsCritical in building and maintaining healthy bones and tissuesSupport immune systemEnsure healthy visionDo not supply energy to our bodiesMinerals- required for body processesRegulate fluid and energy productionEssential for bone and blood healthRemove harmful metabolic by-productsMajor minerals and trace mineralsFat soluble vs. water soluble vitaminsFat soluble vitaminsA, D, E, and KSoluble in fatStored in human bodyToxicity can occur from consuming excess amountsWater soluble vitaminsC, B-vitamins ( thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and folate)Soluble in waterNot stored in body; excess excreted in urineToxicity occurs through supplementationEnergy yielding nutrients – kcal/g for each, know their major functions in the bodyCarbohydrate: 4 kcal/gFat: 9 kcal/gProtein: 4 kcal/gAlcohol contributes 7 kcal/g that can be used for energy, but it is not considered a nutrientBe able to calculate energy contributions of nutrients.You consume a total of 2,500 kcal. You consumed 300 g of carbs, 90 g of lipids, and 123 g of proteinsTo calculate carbs multiply g times total energy300 g carbs x 4 kcal/g = 1,200 kcal of carbsTake total kcal and divide by total kcal consumed and multiply by 100(1,200 kcal/2,500 kcal) x 100= 48% of total energy from carbsTo calculate lipids and proteins its the same but with 9kcal and 4kcalExplain the components of the DRI.Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)supports a specific function in the body for half (50%) of the healthy populationUsed to define the RDA of a nutrientRecommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)use the EAR as a base and include sufficient daily amounts of nutrients to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy populations (98%)Adequate Intake (AI)insufficient scientific evidence to determine EARreflect the average daily amount of a nutrient that a group of healthy people consumesTolerable Upper Limit Intake (UL)maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy peoplebeyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effectsEstimated Energy Requirement (EER)the average daily energy intake to maintain energy balance and good health for population groupsDefined by age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activityAcceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)represents the range of intakes for energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce risk of chronic diseaseCHO: 45-65%Fat: 20-35%Protein: 10-35%Chapter 2:What are the different components of healthful diet?Adequate•Sufficient energy and nutrients to maintain a person’s healthModerateNot too much and not too little of any of the foodsBalancedProper proportions of nutrientsDiverseMany different foods from the different food groups on a regular basisWhat are the key recommendations of the dietary guidelines for Americans?Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foodsChoose foods that are limited in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcoholChapter 3:What is the difference between hunger and appetite?HungerPhysiological drive for foodNonspecificCan be satisfied by a variety of different foodsAppetitePsychological desire to consume specific foodsAroused by environmental cuesWhat are the components of gastric juice? What role does each play?Hydrochloric acid (HCl) denatures proteins and activates pepsinPepsin - enzyme to digest proteinGastric lipase - enzyme to digest fatIntrinsic factor - protein to absorb vitamin B12What are the functions of chyme, mucus, and bicarbonate in the stomach?Chyme: liquid product of mechanical and chemical digestion in the stomachMucus layer protects the stomach lining from the acid in gastric juicesBicarbonate neutralizes the acidReview the digestive enzymes and hormones of the GIT and their function.Digestive EnzymesSalivary amylase- digest carbohydratesPepsin- digest proteinsGastric lipase- digests lipidsProteases- digest proteinsElastase- digests fibrous proteinsPancreatic lipase- digest lipidsCholesterol esterase- digests cholesterolPancreatic amylase- digests carbohydratesCarboxpeptidase- digests proteinsLipase- digests lipidsSucrase- digests sucroseMaltase- digests maltoseLactase- digests lactoseWhat are the three accessory organs and their functions?GallbladderStores bile, a greenish fluid, produced by the liverCCK - Signals the gallbladder to release bileBileEmulsifies the lipidsLipids are dispersed into smaller globules and become more accessible to digestive enzymesPancreasManufactures, holds, and secretes digestive enzymesStores enzymes in the inactive formPancreatic amylase digests carbohydratesPancreatic lipase digests fatsProtease digests proteinsInsulin & glucagon (hormones) are produced to regulate blood glucoseBicarbonate is secreted to neutralize chymeThe liver is one of the most important organs in the bodySynthesizes chemicals for metabolismBile for emulsification of fatsReceives the products of digestion via the portal veinReleases glucose from glycogen storesStores vitaminsManufactures blood proteinsFilters the blood, removing wastes and toxins.Chapter 5:What are the 3 types of lipids found in food and our bodies?TriglyceridesPhospholipidsSterolsExplain the different classifications of fatty acids.Carbon chain lengthShort-, medium-, or long-chain fatty acidsCarbons can be numberedCarboxyl end (COOH): -carbon (alpha—first)Methyl end (CH3): Ω-carbon (omega—last)Determines method of lipid digestion, absorption, metabolism, and useSaturation levelSaturated fatty acidshydrogen atoms surrounding every carbon in the chainMonounsaturated fatty acids1 double bond - lack 1 hydrogen atomPolyunsaturated fatty acids> 1 double bondShapeDetermined by the saturation of the carbon chainsSaturated fatty acidsPack


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