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FSU HUN 1201 - Study Guide Exam 1

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1. What is Nutrition? The study of how food nourishes the body, and influences health. The stages are ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism and excretion. 2. What are the overreaching goals of Healthy people 2020? -They want to help people reach a good quality of long life by preventing disease, disability, injury, and premature death. -They want all people to have good health. -Want to create physical and social environments that promote health. -Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages. 3. Define DRI, RDA, EAR, UL, EER, and AMDR. -DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes: They are made up of the EAR, RDA, AI, UL, EER, and AMDR. -Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Supports a specific function in the body for half of the healthy population. Used to define the RDA of a nutrient. -Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) Uses the EAR as a reference point. It includes the needed daily amounts of nutrients needed to meet the known needs of a healthy population (98% of the people in the population). -Adequate Intakes (AI): There is not enough evidence for it to determine the EAR. Reflects on the average intake of nutrients by healthy people. -Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): The highest amount of a nutrient that is safe for people to eat. Beyond this determined factor, there is a higher risk of getting adverse health effects. -Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): The average amount of nutrients a person must intake in order to have a good energy balance and good health. Takes into consideration the age, gender, weight, height, and physical activity of the population. -Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR): The range of nutrients taken that would provide both adequate energy and reduce the risk of chronic disease. If a nutrient intake falls out of the needed range, then there is the risk for poor health. 4. What are the classes of nutrients? Define each of them, chemical composition, kcal content of each nutrient? Note: Alcohol is not a nutrient, but a toxin, and has 7kcal/g. Does provide energy though.Macronutrients – provide energy. Are needed in large amounts. Micronutrients – Do not provide energy -Carbs (CHO)= Macronutrient. Organic. 4kcal/g. Found in grains, vegetables, fruits, seeds, etc. -Lipids/fats (CHO)=Macronutrient. Organic. 9kcal/g. They are insoluble in water. These include triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols. Stored as adipose tissue (body fat), and hold fat soluble vitamins. Main source of energy during no exercise. -Proteins(CHON)=Macronutrient. Organic. 4kcal/g. Not a primary energy source, but used for building new cells/tissues, repairing damage, bone health, and metabolism. Found in many foods, including meats, seeds and nuts. -Vitamins=Micronutrient. Organic. Fat soluble vitamins are vitamins K, A, D and E. (aka KADE) Water soluble vitamins are C, and some B. Vitamin C supports the immune system. Vitamin A ensures healthy vision. Do not provide energy, but helps derive energy from macronutrients. -Minerals=Micronutrient. Not organic. Needed to remove harmful metabolic by-products. Two categories: Major minerals (large amounts needed: calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, etc.) and trace minerals (very few amounts needed: iron, zinc, copper, manganese, etc.). Can’t be broken down any further. -Water (H2O)=Micronutrient. Not organic. Supports all of the body processes. Fluid balance, nerve impulses, energy production, body temp., excretion, etc. 5. Define the various stages of nutrient deficiencies. -Primary: Directly not taking in enough nutrients. For example: vegans may not get the important nutrients that are found in meat. -Secondary: Has to do with body functions gone wrong. One cannot absorb the nutrient correctly. Too much of a nutrient is excreted. The nutrient is not used efficiently by the body. ∞ Further notes on Chapter 1. ∞ Subclinical deficiency: Happens in the early stages, and there are little to no symptoms. ∞ Covert Symptoms: Are hidden and need laboratory procedures to detect. ∞ Overt Symptoms: Symptoms that are just obvious. ∞ Case control studies: Studies done to the smaller scale, with two groups which do or do not have a condition. ∞ Clinical Trials: Controlled experiments. The experimental group gets some type of intervention, while the control group does not.∞ “Double blind”: Neither the researcher nor the participant knows if they are receiving the treatment of the experiment or the placebo. This helps from there being a bias in the results of the experiment. ∞ The title of a “nutritionist” has no legal definition or laws, so not extremely trustworthy. 6. Which are the components of the food labels required by the FDA? -Five things are required, and they are the statement of identities. You need to know what you’re eating: The amount of food in the package. (Like in ounces.) The ingredients list. The first item in the list is the primary component of the food. A way to contact the manufacturer needs to be present. The daily values of the food. This is based off the 2000 calorie diet. 7. Define Daily Values. Know how to distinguish a food as a low, medium or high source of a nutrient. -Daily Values: Estimate of the food’s individual contribution to the total diet. -Low Source of a nutrient: food contains <5% of a nutrient needed. -Medium Source of a Nutrient: The food contains 10-19% of the amount needed. -Excellent Source of a Nutrient: The food contains >20% of the amount needed. Note: Any health claims, (such as being low in sodium), have to be approved by the FDA. 8. What are the recommendations of the Dietary guidelines for Americans? Guidelines updated every 5 years, the last time was in 2010. -To eat nutrient dense foods - the opposite of calorie dense, aka empty calories. -Eat fewer foods that are of concern. Eat less sodium (connected to heart problems and loss of calcium from bones), no trans fats(eat healthy fats in moderation), less sugar (results in obesity and tooth decay), and less alcohol (no nutrients and can lead to many diseases). -Eat healthier options for food. Vegetables (vitamins and C, folate, potassium and magnesium), whole grain (3 ounces of more per day), fat free dairy products, lean beef, poultry, seafood, and foods that are high in fiber/vitamins/calcium.


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