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FSU HUN 1201 - Study Guide for Final Exam

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Study Guide for Final Exam (Test 4)Chapter 11. What is nutrition? Why is it important?• Nutrition is the science that studies food, and how food nourishes the body and influences health- The stages are – ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion• Nutrition is important because there is a relationship between nutrition and disease. Poor nutrition is associated with deficiency diseases such as scurvy and pellagra, plays a role in the development of cancer and osteoporosis, is associated with heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes2. Explain the different types of nutrientsa. Organic vs. inorganic- Organic – contain carbon, such a carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins- Inorganic – do not contain carbon, such as minerals and waterb. Macronutrient vs. micronutrient- Macronutrients – provide energy/fuel for our bodieso Required in large amounts- Micronutrients – do not provide energy, facilitate the release of energy, assist in regulating body processeso Required in smaller amountsc. Fat soluble vs. water soluble vitamins- Fat-soluble – stored in the human body, toxicity can occur from consuming excess amounts, which accumulate in the body o Vitamins: A, D, E, and K- Water-soluble – not stored anywhere in the body, excess secreted in urine, toxicity generally only occurs by taking vitamin supplementationo Vitamins: C, and B-vitaminsd. Energy yielding nutrients ‒ kcal/g for each.- Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/g- Fat – 9kcal/g- Protein – 4 kcal/g- Alcohol – not a nutrient but does provide – 7kcal/g3. DRI’s apply to which population of people? Explain the components of the DRI (EAR, RDA, AI, UL, EER, AMDR).- Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI’s) are dietary standards for healthy people only. They aim to prevent deficiency disease and reduce chronic diseases. Include:o Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Supports a specific function in the body for half (50%) of the healthy populationo Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Use the EAR as a base and include sufficient daily amounts of nutrients to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy populations (98%)o Adequate Intake (AI): Reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient that a group of healthy people consumeso Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Highest daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and not be toxico Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): The average daily energy intake to maintain energy balance and good health for population groups Defined by age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activityo Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR): Represents the range of intake for energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce risk of chronic diseaseChapter 21. What are the useful tools for designing a healthful diet?• Food Labels• The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans• USDA Food Patterns: MyPlate2. Define nutrient density.• Nutrient dense – most nutrients for the least amount of calories3. What are the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPlate?• 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americanso Balance calories to maintain weighto Consume fewer food “of concern”o Consume more healthful foods and nutrientso Follow healthy eating patterns• MyPlateo Make half your grains wholeo Vary your veggieso Focus on fruitso Get your calcium-rich foodso Go lean with protein4. What is a chronic disease?• A chronic disease is a disease characterized by a gradual onset and long duration, with signs and symptoms that are difficult to interpret and that respond poorly to medical treatmento Examples: Cancer and Cardiovascular diseaseChapter 131. How to evaluate if a person’s body weight is healthful?• Determining is a person’s body weight is healthful:o Determining the body mass index (BMI) BMI=[weight (lbs)/height (inches) 2] x703 Normal BMI: 18.5-25 kg/m2o Assessing the pattern of fat distribution Apple-shaped or pear-shapedo Measuring body composition Underwater weighing, skin fold measurements, bioelectric impedance analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), Bod Pod2. What are the components of energy expenditure?• Basal metabolic rate (BMR) aka resting – 60-75%• Thermic effect of food (TEF) – 5-10%• Energy cost of physical activity – 15-35%Chapter 13.51. Know the different eating disorders.• Anorexia nervosao Self-starvation leading to a severe nutrient deficiency, extreme drive for thinnesso 90-95% are young females, 5-20% die from complications within 10 yearso Signs: restrictive eating practice, fear of gaining weight, amenorrheao Consequences: energy and nutrient deficiency, electrolyte imbalance, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal problems, bone problems, possibly even death• Bulimia nervosao Recurrent episodes of extreme overeating and compensatory behaviors (purging, excessive exercise) to prevent weight gaino At least twice a week or 3 monthso Signs: chronically inflamed and sore throat, swollen glands in neck and below the jawo Consequences: electrolyte imbalance, gastrointestinal problems, dental problems• Binge-Eatingo Extreme overeating without purgingo After stressful events, more than twice a week, common in meno Consequences: low self-esteem, avoidance of social contact, depression and negative thoughts• Night-Eating Syndromeo People who were not hungry during the day, but eat in the evening and nighto Depressed mood and insomniao Combination of eating disorder, sleep disorder, and mood disorderChapter 4.5, 7‒alcohol1. What are the problems associated with alcohol abuse?• Alcohol Abuse – the excessive alcohol consumption, whether chronically or occasionally, that results in distress, danger, or harm to one’s health, functioning, or relationshipso Include: alcohol hangover, reduced brain function, alcohol poisoning, increased risk for chronic disease, malnutrition, increased risk for traumatic injury, fetal and infant health problemso Reduced liver function Fatty liver (alcoholic steatosis) – an early and reversible stage of liver disease Alcoholic hepatitis – inflammation of the liver cause by alcohol, more severe Cirrhosis of the liver – end-stage liver disease, having significant abnormalities in liver structure and function2. What are the steps in alcohol oxidation? What does ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) do?• Alcohol oxidation o First-pass metabolism: small


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