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FSU HUN 1201 - Study Guide for Final Exam

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Study Guide for Final Exam (Test 4)1. What is the main link between Nutrition and Disease in the US? Some nutrients can help to prevent disease, or lower your risk. Healthy People 2020: Increase quality and years of healthy life, eliminate health disparities. 2. Give examples of 5 organic micronutrients. Give examples of 5 inorganic micronutrients. The lack of what element makes them inorganic?Organic: Vitamin A, B, C, D, EInorganic: Water, MineralsInorganic nutrients are from lack of Carbon 3. What are the primary functions of proteins in the body?Cell growth, repair, maintenance, Enzymes and hormones, Fluid and electrolyte balance, Acid−base balance, Immune system, Energy source, Nutrient transport and storage4. DRI’s apply to which population of people?Healthy people ONLY5. What is a chronic disease?A disease that persists for a long time. A chronic disease is one lasting 3 months or more, by the definition of theU.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear6. Define Nutrient DensityMost commonly, nutrient density is defined as a ratio of nutrient content (in grams) to the total energy content (in kilocalories or joules). Nutrient-dense food is opposite to energy-dense food (also called "empty calorie" food).7. Which government agency regulates food labeling in the US?FDA8. What type of fat do we want to avoid entirely, and what type of fat do we want to limit according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.9. When an individual is consuming fewer calories than required, which characteristic of a healthful diet would not be met? Define Balance, Adequacy, Variety, Moderation to help you answer this.• Adequate– Sufficient energy and nutrients to maintain a person’s health (Varies from person to person)• Moderate – Not too much and not too little of any of the foods• Balanced– Proper proportions of nutrients• Diverse– Many different foods from the different food groups on a regular basisModeration would not be met if you are consuming too little of food. 10. Processed foods typically contain what mineral to help preserve it?Salt11. Define physically active according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.At least 30 minutes of physical activity a day.12. Define Hunger. Define Appetite. What is the difference between the two?Hunger: physiological drive for food NonspecificCan be satisfied by a variety of different foodsAppetite: psychological desire to consume specific foods What are the functions of mucus in the stomach?13. What does HCL activate in the stomach?a. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) denatures proteins and activates pepsin14. What compound secreted during digestion emulsifies fats? What organs make and store this?Bile emulsifies the lipids a. Lipids are dispersed into smaller globules and become more accessible to digestive enzymesGallbladder stores bile, a greenish fluid, produced by the liver CCK signals the gallbladder to release bile15. What compound neutralizes stomach acid? What organ secretes this?The enzymes secreted by the exocrine gland in the pancreas help break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and acids in the duodenum. These enzymes travel down the pancreatic duct into the bile duct in an inactive form. When they enter the duodenum, they are activated. The exocrine tissue also secretes a bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid in the duodenum.16. Where does carbohydrate digestion occur, and what enzymes are involved?• In the mouth, Salivary amylase 17. Intrinsic factor is needed to absorb which nutrient? Which cells in the stomach secret this?Gastric Glands:a. Parietal Cells – secrete HCl and intrinsic factorb. Chief Cells – secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase 18. Which hormone triggers the stomach to release digestive juices? What is this digestive juice called?Gastrin:a. a hormone secreted by stomach lining cells that stimulates the gastric glands to produce gastric juice19. List the accessory organs of digestion.Gall Bladder, Pancreas, Liver20. Which hormone secreted in the GI tract plays a role in eating behavior and weight regulation?Ghrelin: a hormone secreted by the cells in the GI tract, plays a role in eating behaviors and weight regulation21. Define absorption, digestion, elimination, and segmentation.a. Absorption: The movement of a substance, such as a liquid or a solute, across a cell membrane by means of diffusion or osmosisb. Digestion: the process by which food is broken down into simple chemical compounds that can be absorbed and used as nutrients or eliminated by the bodyc. Elimination: expelling waste products from the bodyd. Segmentation: periodic constriction of segments of intestine without movement backwards or forwards.A mixing rather than a propulsive movement.22. What enzyme is secreted in the mouth?Salivary Amylase23. The smallest molecules that make up carbohydrates are called _glucose (monosaccrides)_.24. The smallest molecules that make up proteins are called _amino acids___.25. What type of diet causes ketosis?Low Carbohydrate26. Define hyperglycemia, hypoglycemiaHigh glucose levels, love glucose levels27. Define moderate alcohol consumptionMales: 2 drinks per day. Female: 1 drink per day28. Define Metabolic Tolerance, Functional Tolerancea. Metabolic tolerancei. The liver becomes more efficient in its breakdown of alcoholii. BAC rises more slowly after drinkingb. Functional tolerancei. Individuals show few signs of impairment /intoxication, even at high BAC29. What are the steps in alcohol oxidation? What does ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) do?Alcohol is oxidized primarily in the liver by enzymes: a. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)In humans and many other animals, they serve to break down alcohols that otherwise are toxic, and they also participate in generation of useful aldehyde, ketone, or alcohol groups during biosynthesis of various metabolites.b. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)c. Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)First-pass metabolism: small amount of alcohol is oxidized in the stomach, before being absorbed into the bloodstream30. Name some foods sources of saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and trans fats.a. Saturated Fat: cheese, milkb. Polyunsaturated fat: sunflower seeds, olive oilc.


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