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FSU HUN 1201 - Study guide for Exam 1

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HUN 1201 Study guide for Exam 11. What is Nutrition? a. The science that studies foodi. How food nourishes the body and influences health2. What are the overreaching goals of Healthy people 2020?a. Increase quality and years of healthy lifeb. Eliminate health disparities 3. Define DRI, RDA, EAR, UL, EER, and AMDR.a.b. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI): updated nutritional standardsi. Dietary standards for healthy people onlyii. Aim to prevent deficiency diseases and reduce chronic diseasesc. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)i. Supports a specific function in the body for 50% of the healthy populationii. Used to define RDA of a nutrientd. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)i. Uses the EAR as a base and include sufficient daily amounts of nutrients to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy populations 98%e. Adequate Intake (AI)i. Reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient that a group of healthy people consumef. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)i. Maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy peopleg. Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)i. The average daily energy intake to maintain energy balance and good health for population groupsii. Defined by age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activityh. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)i. Represents the range of intakes for energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce risk of chronic disease1. CHO 45-65%2. Fat 20-35%3. Protein 10-35%4. What are the classes of nutrients? Define each of them, chemical composition, kcal content of each nutrient?a. Macronutrients: provide energyi. Carbohydrates (CHO)1. Fuel for the body, especially for neurologic functioning and physical exercise2. Contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen3. 4 kcal/gii. Lipids/Fats1. Insoluble in water2. Include triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols3. Energy source during rest or low to moderate intensity exercise4. Stored as adipose tissue (body fat)5. Provide fat soluble vitamins6. Contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen7. 9 kcal/giii. Proteins1. Primarily in meat, dairy, seeds, nuts, and legumes2. Small amounts are found in vegetables and whole grains3. Contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen 4. 4 kcal/g b. Micronutrients: do not provide energy, facilitate the release of energyi. Vitamins1. Assit in regulating body processes2. Required in smaller amounts3. Critical in building and maintaining healthy bones and tissues4. Support immune system5. Ensure healthy vision6. Contain carbon hydrogen and oxygenii. Mineralsiii. Water1. inorganic essential nutrient2. Fluid balance and nutrient transport3. Nerve impulses4. Body temperature5. Muscle contractions6. Excretion of waste products5. What are the different categories of Vitamins? Define water-soluble & fat-soluble vitamins? What are the properties of each of these categories, give some examples for each? a. Fat Solublei. Vitamins A, D, E and Kii. Stored in the human bodyiii. Toxicity can occur from consuming excess amounts, which accumulate in the bodyb. Water solublei. Vitamins C and B1. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folateii. Not stored to any extent in the human bodyiii. Excess excreted in urineiv. Toxicity generally only occurs as a result of vitamin supplementation6. Define major minerals and trace minerals.a. Major Mineralsi. Calcium, phorphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, sulfurii. Needed in amounts greater than 100 mg/day in our dietsb. Trace Mineralsi. Iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, iodineii. Needed in amounts less than 100 mg/day in our diets7. Define the various stages of nutrient deficiencies. a. Malnutritioni. Too much or too little of a particular nutrient or energy over a significant period of timeb. Under nutritioni. Too little energy or too few nutrients over timeii. Weight loss or a nutrient deficiency diseasec. Over nutritioni. Too much energy or too much of a given nutrient over timeii. Obesity, heart disease, or nutrient toxicity 8. Which are the components of the Food labels required by the FDA and which ones are not required by the FDA?a. FDA Requiresi. A statement of identityii. Net contents of the packageiii. Ingredient listiv. Manufacturers name and addressv. Nutrition information9. Define Daily Values. Know how to distinguish a food as a low, medium or high source of a nutrient. a. Daily Valuei. Estimate of individual foods contribution to total diet1. High > 20%2. Good 10-19%3. Low <5%10. What are the recommendations of the Dietary guidelines for Americans for carbohydrates, proteins, fats and physical activity?a. Choose fiber rich fruits, veggies, whole grainsb. Prepare foods with little added sugarc. Limit intake of foods high in sugar and starchd. Reduce the risk of dental cavities11. What are the tools used to assist in designing a healthful diet?a. Food labelsb. Dietary guidelines for Americansc. Myplate12. Define phytochemicals.a. Naturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance healthb. Found in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffeec. May reduce risks for chronic diseasesi. Cancer and cardiovascular disease13. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans why is there a recommendation for sodium and potassium? 14. Define the components of a balanced meal.15. How is BMI calculated? What are the BMI ranges for normal weight, underweight, overweight and obesity? a. [(weight lbs/height in)^2 ]*703b. Underweight: <18.5c. Normal: 18.5-25d. Overweight: 25-30e. Obese: >3016. What are the methods used to assess body composition? Which is the gold standard method?a. Underwater weighing: GOLD STANDARDb. Skinfold measurementsc. Bioelectric impedance analysisd. Near-infrared reactancee. Dual-energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA)f. Bod Pod17. What is the disease risks associated with abdominal obesity?a. Chronic disease18. Determinants of basal metabolic rate (BMR)? Which is the primary determinant of BMR?a. Primary determinant of BMR is the amount of lean body mass (LBM)b. Age, gender, weight, height, level of physical activity, diet environment temperature19. Name and define the components of energy expenditure.a. Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)i. Energy expended to process foodii. 5-10% of the energy content of a mealiii. PTN increase TEFb. Energy cost of physical activityi. 15-35% of total daily EEii. Energy expended on body movement and muscular workiii. Type and intensity of activity, how long, body size20. Define metabolic


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