New version page

FSU HUN 1201 - Science of Nutrition Study Guide for Final

Documents in this Course
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

54 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

30 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

35 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

41 pages

Test 4

Test 4

7 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

3 pages

Test 3

Test 3

29 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

12 pages

Exam 2

Exam 2

14 pages

Exam 1

Exam 1

27 pages

Exam 2

Exam 2

16 pages

Notes

Notes

24 pages

Load more
Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5-6 out of 17 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Science of Nutrition Study Guide for Final: Chapters 10, 11, 12, and 1Cole FriedesChapter 10: Nutrients Involved in Antioxidant Function-Antioxidants: compounds that protect cells from the damage caused by oxidation.-Loss of electrons is called oxidations, because it’s fueled by oxygen. Gainingelectrons is called reduction.-Normally, during redox reactions, two atoms with unpaired electrons immediatelypair up, making new stabilized molecules.-When a molecule is formed and the valence electrons do not pair, and thereis a lone electron, the molecule is called a free radical or a reactive oxygenspecies.-Free radicals can often be formed during metabolism when oxygenaccepts a free electron. Also formed from when our immune systemsfight infections. Free Radicals can Destabilize other Molecules-Free radicals are the “seductive outsider” to the paired electrons. They will exert apowerful attraction and steal an electron from stable compounds, in turn generatingmore free radicals. This produces a chain reaction. -If free radical forms in lipid membrane, they destroy the integrity of themembrane, making it no longer hydrophobic, and they lose the ability toregulate fluid and nutrients. Antioxidants Work by Stabilizing Free Radicals-3 main ways antioxidants function:1. Antioxidant vitamins work independently by donating their electrons orhydrogen molecules to FRs to stabilize them. 2. Antioxidant minerals act as cofactors within complex antioxidant enzymesystems that convert the FRs to less damaging substances that can beexcreted.-Examples of enzyme systems are: superoxide dismutase (converts FRsto hydrogen peroxide), Catalase (removes hydrogen peroxide frombody), Glutathione peroxidase (removes hydrogen peroxide from bodyand stops productions of FRs)3. Other compounds like beta-carotene and phytochemicals stabilize FRsand prevent damage to cells and tissues.A Profile of Nutrients that Function as AntioxidantsVitamin E-One of the fat-soluble vitamins, therefore dietary fats carry it from the intestinesthrough the lymph system and eventually into the cells. -Part of both LDLs and VLDLs, transported throughout the body by thoselipoproteins.-There are two separate families of vitamin E: tocotrienols and tocopherols. All ofthe tocotrienols are inactive in the body. Tocopherols are the active forms. -RDA is expressed in terms of ALPHA-tocopherol in mg/day.-The primary function of vitamin E is as an antioxidant. It donates an electron toFRs, stabilizing them and preventing them from destabilizing other molecules. Oneit is oxidized, it is either excreted from the body or recycled back into active vitaminE. -Since Vit E is a fat-soluble vitamin, it mainly protects polyunsaturated fattyacids and LDLs from being oxidized, therefor lowering risk for cardiovasculardisease (CVD). Also is critical antioxidant in protecting the cells in our lungs.-The RDA of vitamin E is 15 mg of ALPHA-tocopherol; this is to prevent erythrocytehemolysis, or the rupturing of the red blood cells, which can lead to anemia.-Vitamin E food sources are: vegetable oils and the products made from them,almost all oils. -Deficiencies of vitamin E are uncommon because it is a fat-soluble vitamin. Canaffect muscle coordination, vision, and speech impairments. Vitamin C-2 main forms of vitamin C: ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid. -Vitamin C is most known for its role in preventing scurvy. It does this by assistingin the synthesis of collagen. -Collagen is a protein that is a critical component of all connective tissues inthe body. Without adequate vitamin C, the body cannot synthesize enoughcollagen, and hemorrhaging and bleeding can occur. -Vitamin C is an extremely important antioxidant in the extracellular fluid. Itdonates electrons to FRs.-Protects LDL cholesterols and enhances immune system function. -Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E after it ahs been oxidized. This occurs whenascorbic acid donates electrons to vitamin E radicals, becoming dehydroascorbicacid. Dehydroascorbic acid is then reduced back to ascorbic acid by GSH(glutathione), which is a tri-peptide composed of glycine, cysteine, and glutamicacid. -The RDA for vitamin C is 90 mg per day for men and 75 mg per day for women. TheUL is 2000 mg per day. Smoking increases the need for vitamin C in the body.-Good food sources of vitamin C are: fruits and vegetables (the best sources)-Because vitamin C is water soluble, typically we excrete any excess.-High amounts can be bad in people with hemochromatosis, which causesaccumulation of excess iron in the body. -Scurvy is really the only vitamin C deficiency. Very rare in developed countries.Beta-Carotene-It is not considered an essential nutrient, but it is a provitamin, which are inactiveforms of vitamins that the body cannot use until they are converted to their activeform. -Beta-carotene is the precursor and inactive form of vitamin A.-Part of a phytochemical class called carotenoids, which is a group of plantpigments. -1 molecule of beta-carotene can be split to form two molecules of active vitamin A.-Functions of BC as an antioxidant are: enhancing the immune system, protectingthe skin from the sun’s UV rays, and protecting our eyes and preventing visiondamage.-Since it is not an essential nutrient, there is no RDA for BC, but it is recommendedto have 6-10 mg a day anyway. -Fruits and vegetables are and anything that is orange is a good source of theprovitamin.-There are no toxic effects of too much BC, but it can turn your skin orange oryellow. There are also no known deficiencies. Vitamin A: Much more than an antioxidant nutrient-Critical to vision and to the growth and differentiation of cells.-Three active forms of vitamin A in the body:-Retinol is the alcohol form.-Retinal is the aldehyde form.-Retinoic Acid is the acid form. -Collectively called “the retinoids”.-Vitamin A is presented in RAE, or retinol activity equivalents. -Vitamin A functions as an antioxidant by scavenging FRs and protecting LDLs fromoxidation. -Vit A affects our sight in two ways:-It enables us to react to changes in the brightness of light-It enables us to distinguish between different wavelengths of light—i.e. seecolor.-In the retina, retinal Combines with a protein called opsin to fromrhodopsin, a


View Full Document
Download Science of Nutrition Study Guide for Final
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Science of Nutrition Study Guide for Final and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Science of Nutrition Study Guide for Final 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?