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FSU HUN 1201 - Chapter 14

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HUN 1201 Exam 3 Study GuideChapter 14:• What sources of energy are utilized during resting and different forms of physical activity (high/low intensity exercise)? o Adensoine Triphosphate (ATP) Energy carrying molecule in the body ATP must be generated continuously since muscles store only enough ATP for 1-3 seconds of activity Energy is realeased when 1 of the 3 phosphates in ATP is cleavedo Creatine Phosphate (CP) Stores some energy that can be used to make ATP CP stores enough energy for 3-15 seconds of maximal physical efforto Glucose Provides ATP through glycolysis• Anaerobico Breakdown of glucose yeilds 2 ATP molecules• Aerobic 3 mins-4 hourso Breakdown of glucose yeilds 36-38 molecules of ATPo Pyruvate Converted into lactic acid• A by product of intense activity• Excess lactic acid is coverted into glucose• When should we replenish our body with nutrients as a result of exercise?o In the first 4-6 hours of recovery• What is glycogen loading? When is it most effective? o Altering exercise duration and carbohydrate intake to maxime muscle glycogeno Not not always improve performanceo Side effects: Gastrointestinal distress• Feeling heavy, bloated, and sluggish• What are the common heat illnesses and how are they manifested? Know the most fatal one.o Heat Syncope Dizziness when standingo Heat Cramps Muscle spasmso Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke Excessive sweating, weakness, nausea, dizziness, headache, difficulty concetraing, hallucinations, comaChapter 7.5:• What are micronutrients? o Vitamins and minerals that are needed in much smaller amountso Assist body functions Energy metabolism Formation and maintenance of healthy cells and tissues• What is the difference between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins? (ie, how are they absorbed, transported, stored, excreted, and how often do we have to consume them?)o Water Soluble Vitamins Not stored in large amounts• Need to be consumed on a daily or weekly basis Deficieny symptoms, including diseases or syndromes can arise fairly quicklyo Fat Soluble Vitamins A, D, E, and K Readily stored in the bodys adipose tissue Can be toxic when taken in excess Megadosing > 10 x recommended intake• What are the characteristics of minerals? What is the difference between major and trace minerals? List the important major and trace minerals. o Naturally occuring inorganic (non-carbon containing) substanceso All minerals are eleements Originate from environment Simplest chemical form possible Not digested or broken down prior to aborsptiono Major Minerals Require at least 100 mg per day• Sodium• Potassium• Phosphorus• Chloride• Calcium• Magnesium• Sulfuro Trace Minerals Require less than 100 mg per day• Selenium• Fluoride• Iodine• Chromium• Manganese• Iron• Zinc• Copper• What affects micronutrient absorption (both increase and decrease absorption)? Know some examples.o Heme Only in meats, fish, and poultry 25%o Non-Heme Plant and animal foods, iron fortified foods, supplements 3-5%Chapter 8:• What is the main function of B-vitamins? o Thiamin Assists in production of DNA and RNA and synthesis of neurotransmitterso Riboflavin b2 Involved in oxidation reduction reactionso Niacin b3 Required for oxidation reduction reactions of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatso Pyridoxine b6 Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism and glucoeogensis synthesis of glycogen phosphorylase, PRO metab, tansamination PLPo Pantothenic Acid b5 Essential for fatty acid metabolismo Biotin b7 Component of carboxylase enzymes that serve as CO2 carriers• What are the cofactors associated with each B-vitamin and what processes are they involved in?• Which B vitamins are sensitive to heat/light?o Riboflavin (vitamin b2): light sensitive• What are the deficiencies and toxicities associated with each B vitamin? o Thiamin b1 Beriberi• Muscle wasting, nerve damageo Riboflavin b2 Ariboflavinosis• Sore throat, swollen mucous membraneso Niacin b3 Pellagra• Dermaitisis, diarrhea, dementiao Pyridoxine b6 Skin, blood, nerve tissues Anemia, convulsions, depression, confusiono Pantothenic Acid b5 Very rareo Biotin b7 Seen in large consumption of raw egg whites over time• Why are choline and Iodine important? What are their deficiency and toxicity symptoms?o Choline Acceleration of synthesis and release of acetylcholine Deficiency• Fat accumulation in the liver Toxicity from excess supplementationo Iodine Regulates body temperature and metabolism Cretinism• Mental retardation, stunted growth Hypothyrodism• Decreased body temperature, cold intolerance, weight gain, fatigue, sluggishness Hyperthyroidism• High levels of thyroid hormone caused by Graves diseaseo Weight loss, increased heat production, muscular tremors, rapid heartbeatChapter 9:• What is body fluid and why is it important?o What is the difference between intracellular, extracellular and interstitial fluid? Intracellular• 2/3 of body fluid Extracellular• 1/3 of body fluid Interstitial Fluid• Between cells that make up tissue or muscle or liver Intravascular• Water in the blood and lympho What factors affect the amount of body fluid? Tissue type• Fluid content is higher in lean tissue vs fatty tissue Gender• Males have more lean tissue Age• Decrease in body water results partly from loss of lean tissue as people ageo When and how do we lose body fluid?o What factors affect the balance of body fluid inside and outside of our cells?• What are electrolytes o What are the major intracellular and extracellular electrolytes? Extracellular fluid• Sodium, chloride Intracellular fluid• Potassium, phosphoruso Functions, regulatory effects, hormones that react to a decrease in fluids, osmosis, water loss, over hydration, dehydration)• How do we regulate our blood volume?o What are the roles of ADH, Rennin, Angiotensin, and Aldosterone? Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)• Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water, reducing urine Renin• Responds to decreased blood pressureo Activate angiotensinogen  angiotensin I  angiostensin II Angiotensin II• Vasoconstrictor• Increases blood pressure Aldosterone• Signals the kidneys to retain sodium and chloride, thereby retaining water, increasing blood pressure and decreasing urine output• What are the 3


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