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FSU HUN 1201 - Study guide for Exam 2

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Due: Before Exam on March 6, 2013HUN 1201 Study guide for Exam 2 Due: Before Exam on March 6, 2013Please handwrite your answers. This study guide is worth 0.5% increase in total weighted grade. In order to receive full credit, the entire study guide must be completed. The material can be found in chapters 3 -7 (corresponding textbook pages listed in course syllabus).Chapter 3:1. What is the difference between hunger and appetite? Hunger: physiological drive for foodAppetite: psychological desire to consume specific foods2. What is the order of organs in the digestive tract beginning with the mouth?Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine3. Define the following AND where they occur:a. Peristalsis-the muscular contractions that move food through the gi tractb. Segmentation-a unique pattern of motilityc. Haustration-the mixing of feces to expose it to the surface of intestine to absorb water. Sac like structures. 4. What are the components of gastric juice? What role does each play?HCL- denatures protein and activates pepsinPepsin- enzyme that digests proteinLipase-digests fatIntrinsic protein-absorbs b12 vitamins5. What is the function of bicarbonate secreted in the stomach and pancreas individually?Stomach-neutralizes acidPancreas-neutralizes chyme6. What is bolus and chyme? Bolus- food that is chewed and moistened in the mouthChyme-liquid product of mechanical and chemical digestion in the stomach7. What are the 3 sections of the small intestine? a. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum8. What are the major functions of the large intestine?a. Store undigested food material and absorb water, short-chain fatty acids, and electrolytes9. List the digestive enzymes and hormones of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and their functions.a. Hormonesi. Gastrin- secreted by stomach lining cells that stimulate gastric juiceii. Insulin and glucagon- regulate blood glucose levels10. List 3 accessory organs and their role in digestion. Gallbladder- stores bile, a greenish fluid, produced by the liverPancreas- manufactures, holds, and secretes digestive enzymesLiver- receives the products of digestion via the portal vein, releases glucose from glycogen stores. Chapter 4 Study Guide:1. What is the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates? Know examples and sources of each.a. Simple- contains one or two molecules, monosaccharides and disaccharides. (Sugarb. Complex- contains 3 or more molecules, oligosaccharides, starch, glycogen, fibers. 2. What is the difference between starch and glycogen?Starch- plants store carbohydrates as starch,Glycogen- storage form of glucose for animals. 3. What is the difference between soluble and insoluble fibers?Soluble: dissolve in water, viscous and gel form. (Pectin, gum, mucilage, fruit)Insoluble: does not dissolve in water, good for bowel movements, (whole grains, legumes, seeds)4. Where does carbohydrate digestion occur? Which enzymes breakdown carbohydrates, and where in the GIT?a. Digestion begins in the mouth. Salivary amylase is the enzyme that breaks it down to maltose. b. Mostly happens in the small intestine with pancreatic amylase.5. What happens to excess carbohydrates in the body?a. Excess carbs are turned into glucose then into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles. 6. Which hormones regulate the blood glucose levels? Role of each of these in the regulation of blood glucose?a. Insulin- decreases blood glucoseb. Glycogen-increases blood glucose7. Define ketosis, ketoacidosis and gluconeogenesis. a. Ketosis- alternative source of fuel for the brainb. Ketoacidosis- excess ketosis causes a decrease in ph levels in the bodyc. Gluconeogenisis- occurs when a diet is deficient in carbs. The body then creates glucose from proteins, which takes much more energy to do. 8. What are some health benefits of fiber? a. Good for poopb. Helps prevent colon cancerc. Prevents diverticulosis9. What are the dietary recommendations for carbohydrates and fiber?a. Carbohydrates- 130 g/day. 45-65% of daily caloriesb. Fiber- at least 25 g/day for women, 38 g/day for men10. Differentiate between types 1 and type 2 diabetes?a. Type 1- body does not produce enough insulin. Causes hyperglycemiab. Type 2- cells become less responsive to insulin11. Define lactose intolerance.a. Insufficient enzyme lactase to digest the lactose-containing foodsChapter 5 Study Guide:1. What are the 3 types of lipids found in food and our bodies? a. Triglyceridesb. Phospholipidsc. Sterols2. Explain the different classifications of fatty acids.a. Saturated fatty acids have hydrogen atoms surrounding every carbonb. Monounsaturated fatty acids lack one hydrogen and have one double bondc. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one double bond3. Define saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? What is the effect of consuming foods high in each of these on disease risk?a. Saturated fatty acids- pack tightly together. Solid at room temp. (Butter, animal fats, lard. b. Unsaturated fatty acids- does not stack well. More liquid at room temp. 4. What is hydrogenation?a. Hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fatty acids to get rid of the double bonds. i. Makes oils more solid and more saturated. Creates trans fatty acids. 5. What are the 2 types of EFAs? What are some dietary sources of each?a. Omega-6 fatty acids- found in vegetable and nut oils (safflower, sunflower, corn, soy, and peanut oil)b. Omega-4 fatty acids- found in vegetables, soy, flaxseeds and flaxseed oil. 6. Describe phospholipids. What are some of their functions in the body?a. Consists of a Glycerol backbone, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group. It transports substances in and out of the cell. 7. Describe sterols. What are some of their functions in the body?a. Contains multiple rings of carbon atoms. Found in both plant and animal foods and are produced in the body. They are primarily found in fatty parts of animal products, butter, egg yolks/8. Where does fat digestion occur? Explain the process of fat digestion.a. It begins in the small intestine. CCK and secriten are released from the gallbladder and turn fat into lecithin. Then pancreatic enzymes break fat into fatty acids. 9. Define the following and know where they are produced, and their role in lipid transport:a. Micelles-transport lipids to enterocytesb. Chylomicrons-lipoproteins produced in enterocytes to transport lipids from a mealc. VLDLs- a lipoprotein that transports triglycerides. d. LDLs-a lipoprotein that delivers cholesterol to cells.


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