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FSU HUN 1201 - Study Guide

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Kayla McVayHUN 1201 Exam 3 Study Guide Spring 2013Chapter 14:1. What sources of energy are utilized during resting and different forms of physical activity (high/low intensity exercise)? ATP (muscle activity for 1 to 3 seconds), CP, glucose, triglycerides (fats) for low-intensity exercise, rest, sitting/standing in place, and endurance/long events (marathon). Carbs are used for high-intensity activities and fat for low and CP for sprints. Drawback of fat is slow metabolic breakdown. 2. When should we replenish our body with nutrients as a result of exercise? Replenish glycogen right after you exercise.3. What is glycogen loading? When is it most effective? Carbohydrate intake to maximize muscle glycogen. It is most effective the night before athletic events 4. What are the common heat illnesses and how are they manifested? Know the most fatal one. Heat cramps = muscle spasms, heat syncope = dizziness, heat exhaustion and heatstroke occur on a continuum = excessive sweating, weakness, nasusea, dizziness, headache, difficulty concentrating. Heatstroke is the most fatal.Chapter 7.5:5. What are micronutrients? Vitamins and minerals that are needed in a much smaller amount. They assist body functions such as energy metabolism and the function and maintenance of healthy cells and tissue.6. What is the difference between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins? (ie, how are they absorbed, transported, stored, excreted, and how often do we have to consume them?) Water-soluble = not stored in large amounts, they need to be consumed on a daily or weekly basis they are also readily transported in the bloodstream, needs a protein carrier or channel to be absorbed into the cell * B12 is the only one that’s stored (liver). Fat-soluble= readily stored in the body’s adipose tissue and is easily absorbed into the cell (diffused), also need a transporter (protected carrier, micelle). 7. What are the characteristics of minerals? What is the difference between major and trace minerals? List the important major and trace minerals. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic (no carbon) substance. All minerals are elements, which means they are in their simplest chemical form and cannot be broken down. Major requires at least 100 mg per day and trace requires less than 100 mg per day. Major = sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfur. Trace = selenium, fluoride, iodine, chromium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper.8. What affects micronutrient absorption (both increase and decrease absorption)? Know some examples. Increase absorption if from animal sources versus a supplement. Heme iron found in meats, fish, and poultry is absorbed (25%) and non-heme iron found in plants and animal foods is absorbed but only in small amounts (3 to 5%).Chapter 8:9. What is the main function of B-vitamins? Important in assisting energy metabolism, some act as coenzymes which combine with an enzyme to activate it 10. What are the cofactors associated with each B-vitamin and what processes are they involved in? Niacin = NAD involved in glycolysis/carbohydrate metabolism in the TCA cycle/fat metabolism. Thiamin = TPP involved in carb and amino acid metabolism. Biotin = carb, fat, and amino acid (protein) metabolism. Folate = amino acid metabolism. Pyridoxine = carb and amino acid metabolism and synthesis of blood cells. Riboflavin = glutathione peroxidase – antioxidant. 11. Which B vitamins are sensitive to heat/light? Riboflavin ( B2) is light sensitive (milk cartons) 12. Which B vitamin is needed for protein synthesis, even the nonessential amino acids? B6 pirodoxine and folate 13. What are the deficiencies and toxicities associated with each B vitamin? Thiamin ( B1) = deficiency( beriberi) is muscle wasting, and nerve damage. Riboflavin (B2) = ariboflavinosis deficiency is sore throat, and swollen mucous membranes. Niacin (B3) = toxicity symptoms form supplements, and pellagra is severe niacin deficiency. Pyridoxine (B6) = toxicity from high dose supplements (nerve damage and skin lesions), and deficiency involves skin, blood, and nerve tissue. 14. Why are choline and Iodine important? What are their deficiency and toxicity symptoms? Choline is important for metabolism/transport of fat and cholesterol and homocysteine metabolism too. Iodine is important because it regulates body temperature and metabolism. It also is important for reproduction and growth. Choline = deficiency is fat accumulation in liver and toxicity from excess supplementation. Iodine = excess interferes with thyroid function. Goiter is enlarged thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency disorder = cretinism is mental retardation, stunted growth. Hypothyroidism is low thyroid hormone, which results in decreased body temp, cold intolerance, weight gain, fatique and sluggishness. Hyperthyroidism is high levels of thyroid hormone caused by Graves disease which results in weight loss, increased heat production, muscular tremors, nervousness, racing heartbeat, and protrusion of the eyes.Chapter 9:15. What is body fluid and why is it important? It is the liquid portion of cells and tissues. It is important to maintain normal blood pressure and keep tissue and cells hydrated. a. What is the difference between intracellular, extracellular and interstitial fluid? Intracellular = within the cell (2/3 of body fluid). Extracellular = outside the cell (1/3 of body fluid). Interstitial= flows between cells that make up a particular tissue or organ (muscle, liver). b. What factors affect the amount of body fluid? Tissue type= lean tissues have higher fluid content than fat tissue. Gender= males have more lean tissue therefore more body fluid than females. Age = decrease in body water results partly from loss of lean tissue as people age.c. When and how do we lose body fluid? Sweating, urination, bowel movements.d. What factors affect the balance of body fluid inside and outside of our cells? Increased concentration of salt and other dissolved substances in the blood. Reduction in blood volume and blood pressure. Water loss = kidneys excrete water as urine and sweat during exercise, skin or lungs during exhalation, or illness, injury, pregnancy, high altitude. 16. What are electrolytes? Help regulate fluid balance.a. What are the major intracellular and extracellular electrolytes? Intracellular = potassium (+) phosphorus (-). Extracellular = sodium (+), Chloride (-). b. Functions, regulatory


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