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FSU HUN 1201 - Chapter 1

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Nutrition Final Exam Study Guide 12/10/2010Chapter 1Be able to explain nutrition, wellness, and Healthy people 2010.Nutrition: The scientific study of food and how it nourishes the body and influences health. (4)Wellness: A multidimensional, lifelong process that includes physical, emotional and spiritual health. (6)Healthy People 2020: An agenda that promotes optimal health and disease prevention across the United States. It identifies a set of goals and objectives that we hope to reach as a nation by the year 2020. The two main goals are to increase quality and years of healthy life and to eliminate health disparities. (8)Explain the different types of nutrients.Nutrients: Chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth and function. (9)Macronutrients: Nutrients that the body requires in relatively large amounts to support normal function and health. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are macronutrients. (10)Micronutrients: Nutrients needed in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients. (13)Carbohydrates: The primary fuel source for the body, particularly for the brain and for physical exercise. (10)Lipids: A diverse group of organic substances that are insoluble in water; includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. (11)Proteins: The only macronutrient that contains nitrogen; the basic building blocks of proteins are amino acids. (13)Vitamins: Organic compounds that assist in regulating physiologic processes. (13)Minerals: Inorganic substances that are not broken down during digestion and absoption and are not destroyed by heat or light. Minerals assist in the regulation of many body processes and are classified as major minerals or trace minerals. (14)Water: An inorganic nutrient that is vital for survival and is important for regulating nerve impulses and body temperature, muscle contractions, nutrient transport, and excretion of waste products. (14)Explain the components of the DRI.Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): A set of nutritional reference values for the United States and Canada that applies to healthy people. The DRIs for most nutrients consist of Estimated Average Requirement, Recommended Dietary Allowance, Adequate Intake, Tolerable Upper Intake Level. The standards for energy and the macronutrients include the Estimated Energy Requirement and the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. (15)Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): The average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half of the health individuals in a particular life stage or gender group. (15)Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): The average daily nutrient intake level that meets the nutrient requirements of 97% to 98% of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. (16)Adequate Intake (AI): A recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people. (16)Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. (16)Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): The average dietary energery intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult. (17)Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR): A range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. (17)How do we assess and classify nutritional status and deficiencies?Nutritionists use three terms to describe serious nutritional problems:Malnutrition: A nutritional status that is out of balance; an individual is either getting too much or not enough of a particular nutrient or energy over a significant period of time. (18)Undernutrition: A situation in which too little energy or too few nutrients are consumed over time, causing significant weight loss or a nutrient-deficiency disease. (18)Overnutrition: A situation in which too much energy or too much of a given nutrient is consumed over time, causing conditions such as obesity, heart disease, or nutrient-toxicity symptoms. (18)Health-history questionnaires are used to catalog a person’s history of health, illness, drug use, exercise, and diet. Questions relate to demographic information, medication status and drug allergies, family history of disease, personal history of illness, menstrual function for females, and socioeconomic factors. They will ask for diet history, 24-hour dietary recalls, diet records, and diet records. (20)Classifications of Malnutrition:Primary Deficiency: A deficiency that occurs when not enough of a nutrient is consumed in the diet. (20)Secondary Deficiency: A deficiency that occurs when a person cannot absorb enough of a nutrient from the body, or cannot utilize a nutrient efficiently. (20)Subclinical Deficiency: A deficiency in its early stages, when few or no symptoms are observed. (20)Covert Symptom: A symptom that is hidden from a client and requires laboratory tests or other invasive procedures to detect. (20)Nutrition Final Exam Study Guide 12/10/2010Chapter 2What are the different components of healthful diets and food labels?A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients. It has four characteristics: it is adequate, moderate, balanced, and varied. (40)Adequate Diet: A diet that provides enough of the energy, nutrients, and fiber to maintain a persons health. (40)Moderation: Eating any foods in moderate amounts – not too much and not too little. (41)Balanced Diet: A diet tht contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper proportions of nutrients. (41)Variety: Eating a lot of different foods each day. (41)Five primary components of information must be included on food labels. (42)1. A statement of identity: The common name of the product. 2. The net contents of the package: The quantity of the food product in the entire package must be accurately described.3. Ingredient list: The ingredients must be listed by their common names, in descending order by weight.4. The name or address of the food manufacturer, packer, or distributor: This is used for contact purposes.5. Nutrition information: The Nutrition Facts Panel contains the nutrition information required by the FDA.What are the key recommendations of the dietary guidelines for


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