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FSU HUN 1201 - Study Guide # 4

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HUN 1201 - Study Guide # 4 (Chapters 10 - 12)*Due: Before Final Exam on 4/03/2013Name: ____________________________________________________________________HUN 1201 - Study Guide # 4 (Chapters 10 - 12)* *don’t forget to use previous study guides to study for Final Exam.Due: Before Final Exam on 4/03/2013You MUST handwrite your answers . This study guide is worth 0.5% increase in total weighted gradeChapter 10:1. What are antioxidants and free radicals? How do antioxidants battle free radicals?a. Vitamin antioxidants donate their electrons or hydrogen molecules to stabalize them. b. Mineral antioxidants act as cofactors within enzyme systems and convert free radicals to less damaging substances2 What are some examples of enzyme systems involved in this process?a. Superoxide dismutase converts free radicals into less damaging substances. b. Catalaze removes hydrogen peroxide from the body.c. Glutathione peroxidase removes hydrogen peroxide. 3 What are the functions of vitamin E? What are its toxicity and deficiency symptoms?a. Vitamin E protects polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatty cell components, and LDLs from oxidization. Supports normal nerve and muscle development. Is also added to oil-based foods and skincare to reduce spoilage. b. Toxicity symptoms; nausia, intestinal discress, and diarrhea.c. Deficiency symptoms; anemia in premature infants, rupturing of red blood cells (erythrocyte hemolysis), impaired vision and speech. 4 What are some major functions of Vitamin C? How does vitamin C influence Vitamin E? What are toxicity and deficiency symptoms for vitamin C?a. Vitamin C functions include; synthesizing callogen, DNA, Bile. It also acts as an antioxidant for protecting, LDL, lungs, and white blood cells. b. Vitamin C influences vitamin E by regenerating it after it has been oxidized. c. Toxicity includes; not toxic unless taking supplements. d. Deficiency includes; scurvy, bleeding gums, wounds that fail to heal, bone pain. 5 Cite a few sources of each antioxidant.a. Vitamin E; total rasin bran, sunflower seeds, almonds, spinach.b. Vitamin C; red peppers, orange juice, broccoli. 6 Vitamins and minerals that act in synergy/antagonistically in regards to absorption.a. Phytochemicals7 Discuss causes of hypo/hyperkalemia, hypo-hypernatremia.a. Hypokalemia means that there is a low amount of potassium in the systemb. Hyperkalemia means there is an excess amount of potassium in the systemc. Hyponatremia means there is a low amount of sodium in the systemd. Hypernatremia means there is an excess amount of sodium in the system Chapter 11: 1. What are the major functions, and types of bone? Know which minerals are found in bones. a. The function of bones is to support our organs and our segments. b. There are two types of bone. a. Cortical bone (compact bone) is 80% of the skeleton, and the outer surface of bone. b. Trabecular bone (spongy bone) is 20% of skeleton, and is the inside of the bones. It is also sensitive to hormonal and nutritional dificiencies. 2. Explain the different processes involved in bone development.a. Bone growth (increase in size) completes by age 14 for girls and 17 for boys. b. Bone modeling (shape of bone) complete by adulthood. Exercise and overweight increases thickness.c. Bone remodeling (recycling of bone tissue) replaces old bone with new bone to maintain mineral balance.3. Define bone density, what factors influence peak bone density?a. Bone density is the compactness of bones. b. Peak bone density can be reached through proper nutrition and exercise. (running, dancing, and weightlifting.)4. Explain the synthesis, functions, regulation, and sources of the nutrients involved in bone health.a. Calciuma. Functions include; provides structure for bones and teeth. Assists with acid-base balance. Maintains healthy blood pressureb. Regulations include; AI of 1,000 mg to 1300 mg per day. c. Sources; skim milk, low-fat cheese, nonfat yogurt, green leafy veggies. d. Not synthesized. b. Vitamin Da. Functions include; regulates blood calcium levels. Needed for bone calcification. b. Regulations include; 5 to 15 ug/dayc. Sources; the sun, erogolciferol (plant supplements, animal foods, milk, cod liver oil. d. Synthesis; it is synthesized in the body from the sun. c. Vitamin Ka. Functions; blood coagulation and bone metabolismb. Regulations; 120 ug/dayc. Sources; green leafy veggies and vegetable oils. d. Synthesis; is synthesizd by bacteria in the large intestined. Phosphorusa. Functions; critical in bone formation, required for proper fluid alance, component of ATP, DNA, and membranesb. Sources; soft drinks, processed foods, protein-containing foods. c. No synthesise. Magnesiuma. Function; regulation of bone and mineral status. Cofactor for more than 300 enzyme systems. And is necessary for the production of ATP. b. Regulation; UL is 350 mg/dayc. Sources; green leafy veggies, whole grains, seedsd. No synthesisf. Fluoridea. Function; develop and maintain teeth and bones. Combines calcium and phosphorus to protect teeth from bacteria. b. Regulation; 1-4 mg/dayc. Sources; fluoridated water and dental products. 5. What are the symptoms of excess and deficiencies of each nutrient?a. Calciuma. Toxicity; hypercalcemia. . b. Deficiency; hypocalcemiab. Vitamin Da. Toxicity; also hypercalcemiab. Deficiency; loss of bone mass, rickets, osteomalacia. c. Vitamin Ka. Toxicity; no known side affectsb. Deficiency; reduced blood clotting, excessive bleeding. Fat malabsobtiond. Phosphorusa. Toxicity; muscle spasms and convulsionsb. Deficiency; very rare, occurs in people with alcohol abuse, premature infants, and elderly people. e. Magnesiuma. Toxicity; hypermagnesemia. Impaired kidney functionb. Deficiency; hypomagnesemia. Osteoporosis, heart disease. f. Fluoridea. Toxicity; fluorosisb. Deficiency; cavities. 6. Define osteoporosis, what are its characteristics, risk factors, and treatments?a. Characteristics; low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, fragile bones, shortening and hunching of spine (kyphosis)b. Risk factors; age, gender, smoking, poor nutrition, physical inactivityc. Treatments; no cure, adequate calcium and V. D intake, regular exercise, and medications can slow progress. Chapter 121. What are the components of blood?a. Erythrocytes (red blood cells)b. Leukocytes (white blood cells)c. Platelets (cell


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