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FSU SYG 1000 - Sociology Exam 2

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Tuesday, February 17, 2015Sociology Exam 2Chapter 4: Socialization & the life course -The process of socialization is how people learn attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of their culture. -Socialization occurs through human interactions that begin in infancy and continue throughout life-Sociologists recognize biology (nature) to some extent, but the life course is mostly a social construct-The self is a distinct identity that sets us apart from others. •the self emerges as we interact with others, and continues to develop and change throughout our lives-The looking glass self says our perception of ourselves comes not only from direct contemplation of our personal qualities but also from our impressions of how others see us•developed by Charles Horton Cooley-first, we imagine how we present ourselves to others-second, we imagine how others evaluate us-third, we develop some sort of feeling about ourselves•Comes from our imagination, therefore we can develop self-identities based on incorrect perceptions of how others see us-Stages of the self developed by G.H. Mead is a useful model of the process by which the self emerges, defined by 3 stages: preparatory stage, play stage, game stage.•Prep stage: child imitates actions of others•Play Stage: child takes the role of a single other, as if he or she were the other•Game stage:child considers roles of 2+ others simultaneously-generalized other: the attitude/expectations of society as a whole a child takes into account in his or her behavior-significant others refers to those individuals who are most important in the development of the self. - early in life we learn impression management, when we slant our presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences•parallels with the dramaturgical approach-Piagets cognitive theory of development: reasoning is a process of biological maturation. Identified 4 stages in the development of thought processes•Sensorimotor stage: young people use their senses to make discoveries•Preoperational stage: children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas1Tuesday, February 17, 2015•Concrete operational: children engage in more logical thinking•Formal operational: adolescents become capable of sophisticated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in a logical manner -Frued: Agrees with mead and cooley that the self develops through interaction, but adds our natural impulsive instincts (inborn drives) are constantly at conflict with societal constraints. -Erikson: 8 stages of man, the process of socialization is a constant struggle between nature and nurture - rites of passage are a means of dramatizing and validating changes in a persons status•can mark separation as in a graduation ceremony, or incorporation as in initiation - the development of the social self is a lifelong transformation from crib to deathbed- Anticipatory socialization is the process of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions, occupations, and social relationships - Resocialization is the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in ones life•Degradation ceremony: stripping a person of their individuality, often through humiliating activities- Total Institution: an institution that regulates all aspects of a persons life under a single authority (prison, the military, mental hospital) Four common traits:•all aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the same authority•any activities within the institution are conducted in the company of other in the same circumstances•authorities devise rules and schedule activities without consulting participants•all aspects of life are designed to fulfill the purpose of the organization-The family is the most important agent of socialization in the United States- Gender role refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females. (tough=masculine, tender=feminine)•parents play a critical role in guiding children into gender roles deemed appropriate in a society•a culture/subculture may require that one sex or the other take primary responsibility for the certain jobs•sex: ascribed status, refers to biology based traits-As a child grows older the family becomes less important in social development and peer groups increasingly assume the role of Mead’s significant others. - Mass media, especially the internet, and technology echo and amplify much of teens socialization-The workplace is important because learning to behave appropriately in an occupation is a fundamental aspect of human socialization. •occupational socialization can be most intense during the transition from school to job, but it continues throughout ones work history2Tuesday, February 17, 2015-Both organized religion and government have impacted the life course by reinstitution communities and early industrial societies-Structural functionalism approach: socialization is learning core values of society so that we become contributors to integration and order in society-Conflict approach: socialization is learning patterns of social inequality and ideologies that support the status quo -Social construct: labels assigned to people according to the society in which they live includes race, ethnicity, and gender. They are culturally relative and arbitrary.Chapter 5: Social interaction, Social Structure & Groups -Social interaction: the ways people respond to one another- Social structure: the way society is organized into predictable relationship, work together. -Both closely related to socialization, adjusting to social structure and learning rules for social interaction.-Our response to someone’s behavior is based on the meaning we attach to his or her actions. Reality is shaped by our perceptions, evaluations, and definitions. -Elements of Social Structure•Status: any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society, from the lowest to the highest. A person can hold a number of statuses at the same time•Social Roles: a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status. -a person must undergo preparation and anticipatory socialization for a role• Group: any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis. •Social Networks: a


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