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FSU SYG 1000 - Final Study Guide Test 3

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Final Study Guide Test 3Chapter 13Power (p 353) • The ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they holdAuthority (p 353)• A government’s legitimate use of powerState (p 353) • A political structure ruling over a given territory, whose authority is backed by law and the ability to use force• Not typical of hunting & gathering and most agrarian societiesNation-states (p 353) • Particular type of state in the modern world in which the government has sovereign power within a defined territory, and citizens who know they are part of a single nationSovereignty (p 353) • The undisputed political rule of a state over a given territorial areao “Failed states” like Somalia or Sudan have lost authority and resort to deadly force to retain or regain powerCitizens (p 354) • Members of a political community, having both rights and duties associated with that membershipNationalism (p 354) • A set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national community• Patriotism in the United StatesCivil rights (p 354) • Legal rights held by all citizens in a given national communityPolitical rights (p 355) • Rights of political participation, such as the right to vote in local and national elections, held by citizens of a national communityo In 1870, African American men; in 1920, all American women; in 1960s, voter registration effort in civil rights movementSocial rights (p 355) • Rights of social and welfare provision held by all citizens in a national community, including, for example, the right to claim unemployment benefits and sickness payments provided by the stateWelfare state (p 355) • A political system that provides a wide range of welfare benefits for its citizensDemocracy (p 356) • A political system that allows the citizens to participate in political decision making or to elect representatives to government bodiesParticipatory (direct) democracy (p 356)• A system of democracy in which members of a group or community participate collectively in making major decisionsConstitutional monarchy (p 356) • Kings or queens are largely figureheads• Real power rests in the hands of other political leaders• The United Kingdom, Sweden, and JapanLiberal democracy (p 356)• Systems of democracy based on parliamentary institutions, coupled to the free-market system in the area of economic production1• The United States, Japan, most Western European countries, Australia, and New Zealand• The spread of liberal democracyo In 1989, 41 percent of countries were electoral democracies; by 2009, the number jumped to 62 percento Democracy is associated with capitalism Citizens and outsiders pressure governments to establish democracyThe role of the Internet in democratization (pp 357-59) • The Internet transcends national and cultural borders• 29% worldwide use the Internet; 77% in North America, 58% in Europe, 22% in Asia, 11% in Africa• Cell phones, texting, e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, Skype, and YouTube can be used to create changeDemocracy in the U.S.(pp 362-70)• Participatory democracy- a system in which decisions are made communally by those affected by them.o Original kind used in ancient Athens• Political parties (p 362)o An organization of individuals with broadly similar political aims, oriented toward achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral processo Two-party systems (winner-take-all elections)o Multiparty systems (proportional representation)Politics and voting (p 362) • Decline in political party identification and strength• Growing distrust of politics and governmentVoter turnout (p 363)• In U.S. presidential elections: 64% in 1960; 56% in 2000; 61% in 2004 and 2008Interest groups (p 368) • A group organized to pursue specific interests in the political arena, operating primarily by lobbying the members of legislative bodiesLobbying (p 368)• The process of influencing public and government policy at all levels: federal, state, and local.The political participation of women (p 371)• When women run for office, they do as well as men; the challenge is to get women to run• Of 186 countries, the United States ranks 71st in women’s representation in parliamentChapter 14*Work (p 394)• The carrying out of tasks that require the expenditure of mental and physical effort, which has as its objective the production of goods and services that cater to human needsOccupation (p 394)• Any form of paid employment in which an individual regularly worksEconomy (p 394)• The system of production and exchange that provides for the material needs of individuals living in a given societyTechnology (p 395)• The application of knowledge of the material world to production; the creation of material instruments (such as machines) used in human interaction with natureThe characteristics of work/Social significance of work (pp 395-6) • Moneyo Necessary for survival or to meet needs2• Activity levelo Acquire and use skills at work• Varietyo Work stands in contrast to domestic life• Structuring one’s timeo Work gives rhythm to daily life• Social contactso New friends and social activities through work• Personal Identityo Work boosts self-esteemThe informal economy (p 396) • Economic transactions carried on outside the sphere of orthodox paid employmento Unpaid work Non-monetary exchanges of goods and services, self-provisioning, volunteeringo Off-the-books cash transactions for goods and servicesDivision of labor (396) The specialization of work tasks, by means of which different occupations are combined within a production systemEconomic interdependence (p 396)  Individuals depend on others to produce many or most of the goods they need to sustain their livesTaylorism (p 397) A set of ideas, also referred to as “scientific management,” developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, involving simple, coordinated operations in industryFordism (p 397) The system of production pioneered by Henry Ford, in which the assembly line was introducedLow-trust system (p 398) Organizational or work setting in which people are allowed little responsibility for or control over the work taskHigh-trust system (p 398) Organizational or work setting in which individuals are permitted a great deal of autonomy and control over the work taskStrikes (p 398-9) A temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees in order to express a grievance or


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