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FSU SYG 1000 - Study Guide Questions #2

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral DevelopmentCharles H. Cooley and Looking Glass SelfErik EriksonFreudChapter 4: Socialization and the Life CycleIntroductionCulture, Society, and Child SocializationAgents of SocializationSocial RolesIdentityGender SocializationThe Debate About Gender SocializationSocialization Through The Life CourseChapter 10: Gender Inequality (pages 257-264, 272-273, 288-289)IntroductionGender Differences: Nature vs. NurtureFindings from other CulturesThe Family and Gender IssuesChapter 11: Race and Ethnicity (pages 293-296)IntroductionRace and Ethnicity: Key ConceptsChapter 6: Groups, Networks, and OrganizationsSocial GroupsNetworksOrganizationsTheories of OrganizationBeyond BureaucracyOrganizations That Span The WorldHow Do Groups and Organizations Affect Your Life?Basic ConceptsNew Perspective in the Sociology of the FamilyThe Family HistoryThe Development of Family LifeMyths of the Traditional FamilyChanges in Family Patterns World WideDirections of ChangeMarriage in and the Family In the United StatesRace, Ethnicity, and the American FamilyRed Families versus Blue Families (Cahn and Carbone)Florida State UniversitySoiology Department SYG 1000-Introduction to SociologyDr. Gloria T. LessanSpring 2012Study Guide Questions #2CAVEAT: The following questions are a guide to help you study the material for the 2nd Midterm exam. It is not a contract that defines the exam.1. Define socialization. Briefly summarize the contributions to our understanding of socialization advanced by Freud, Piaget, Kohlberg, Gilligan, G.H. Mead, Charles H. Cooley and Erik Erikson.Socialization: the social process through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self, significant in infancy and childhood but continue throughout lifeFreud's Model of Personality• Freud's perspective combined both basic needs and the influence of society into a model of personality.• Personality is comprised of three parts. o Id Rooted in biology  Represents the human being's basic needs (unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction) o Ego Represents the conscious attempt to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives of the human organism and the demands of society Mediates conflict between the id (innate drives) and the superego (cultural norms and beliefs)o Superego Internalization of a culture’s values and norms within the individual  Defines an individual’s moral limits Jean Piaget and the Stages of Cognitive Development• Cognition: the way children learn to think about themselves and their environment• Children are active in making sense of their worldo Select and interpret pieces of their environment• Stages of cognitive development (obtain new skills and must successfully complete the previous to begin the next)o Sensorimotor Stage Children’s awareness of environment is through perception and touch Learn that environment has distinct and stable propertieso Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old) Children master basic modes of logical thought Learn language and learn to use other symbols Egocentric: interpret world only in terms of their own position Lack the understanding of conservation of amountso Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years old) Master abstract and logical thoughto Formal Operational Stage Can handle abstract concepts and hypotheticals Everyone does not reach this stage (must go to school to do so)Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral DevelopmentBuilt on Piaget’s work to study moral reasoning, which is how individuals judge situations as right or wrong.3 Stages:• Preconventional – young children; rightness amounts to what feels good to me• Conventional – teenagers; lose some selfishness and learn to define right and wrong in terms of what pleases parents and conforms to cultural norms• Postconventional – people move beyond society’s norms to consider abstract ethical principlesGilligan’s Theory• Women judge themselves on the quality of their relationships and their ability to care for otherso Morality centers around helping otherso Women are more tentative in moral judgments because the contradiction that may exist between following a strict more code and helping others• Men see individual achievement as the only form of success thus devalue the attributes of womeno Morality centers around abstract ideas of duty, justice, and freedomG.H. Mead and the Development of Self • Symbolic interaction: interactions between humans occur through symbols and interpretation of meanings• Emergence of the Selfo Children become social beings by imitating the actions of others Especially through play• Play evolves to acting out adult roles or “taking the role of the other”; Through this children develop a sense of self or an understanding of themselves as separate agents and see themselves through the eyes of otherso We achieve self-awareness by distinguishing the me from the I I: unsocialized, all wants and desires Me: social self: identity conferred by the reactions of others• Self-consciousness: awareness of one’s direct social identity as a person separate from otherso Language is an important part of thiso Generalized other Individual internalized the general values of a group Learned through organized games because children must understand rules, fairness, and equal participationCharles H. Cooley and Looking Glass Self• Language and gestures are social (used to communicate)• Looking glass self; the eyes of the people you interact with are your mirroro Imagine ourselves in others, interpret others’ reactions, and develop a self-concepto Tells you who you are, you see yourself in the eyes of others, without others you don’t know who you are.o Accommodate to what we see: if we see admiration in the eyes of others we continue that behaviorErik Erikson• Conflict between individual and society is never solved and appears in different ways throughout life• As you get older, you experience different dilemmas (8)o ex. Sacrifice freedom for children• The longer we live the more difficulties we have• Must face these dilemma and have an answer in order to have a fulfilling life• If you don’t solve these dilemma then you have personal baggage because of socialization imbalances (uncertainty, grumpy)• Personality effects how you deal with dilemmas2. The above views on socialization sometimes overlap and sometimes, oppose the main argument


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