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FSU SYG 1000 - Exam 2: Study Guide

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Intro to SociologyAmanda PolingExam 2: Study GuideChapter 4 (continued)- Social Roleso Role: behavior of a specific status Ex. Role as student=study, go to class, take noteso Role expectations: anticipated behaviors for a particular role Ex. Role as student=stop talking when teacher comes in, take out notebook, put phone awayo Role performance: degree to which a person plays their role in a manner we expect Ex. Doing all of the role expectations as student= good role performance(good student)o Role conflict: what occurs when a person is forced to choose between competing demands of multiple roles Ex. Mom has to go to work but her child is sick and need to go to the doctoro Role strain: occurs when demands and expectations of one role are impossible to satisfy Ex. Boss want you to clean up and help customer at the same time- Social Institutions: Structures that provide for patterned relationships; everything is already structured and set up for uso Family: rules are laid out already, we just take on the roleo Educational and religious systemso Economic systemso Political and legal systems- Micro Orientations/ social Interactionso Personal space Intimate distance: reserved for people who we are very close to (0-18”)- Spouse, siblings, parents Personal distance: normal conversation distance (18”-4’)- Friends Social distance: formal situations or impersonal encounters (4-‘-12’)- Teachers Public distance: highly formal settings, speaker is separate from listener (>12’)- Speaker on stageo Dramaturgy Impression management: management of the impression that the performer makes on others- Don’t text during class to make good impression on your teacher Front stage: what the “audience” sees or the part of ourselves we present to others- Taking notes for teacher to see Back stage: the demeanor that incorporates our true feelings and beliefs- Don’t like teacher but only reveal that to our friends and act nice to her Embarrassment: state that occurs when we realize our act/action has failed Face-saving work: reaction to embarrassment in the form of either humor, anger, or retreat Ex. Scenario: meeting boyfriend’s parents for the first time- Impression: you’re courteous, respectful, caring- Front stage: ask to help clean up, pull out chair, shake hands and make eye contact- Back stage: you hate them, you think they’re annoying and disrespectful- Embarrassment: you spill your drink, burp, or say something offensive- Face-saving work: apologize, leave early, or change the subject- Social Structure and Theoryo Symbolic interactionism “if men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” We define situations as embarrassing even if others don’t think soo Functionalism Dramaturgy keeps society goingo Conflict Theory Native Americans sent to camps to become “Americanized”o *video: “That Gotye Song”Chapter 5: Socialization- Socialization: process that teaches the norms, values, and other aspects of a culture to new group memberso Primary socialization: the socialization that occurs during childhood Parents are largely responsible- Teach children religious values, sharing, kindness, proper manners/behaviorso Secondary socialization: dynamic whereby socialization continues throughout our lives Not taught how to socialize in college, we learn it- Nature vs. Nurtureo Nature: genes we get from our parents at conception are the primary causes of human behavioro Nurture: our environment influences the way we think, feel, and behaveo Sociologists try to avoid either extremeo Ex. Feral Children (kids raised without human interaction or socialization) cannot speak or feed themselves because those are things taught by our environment, not our genes- Looking-glass selfo Charles Cooleyo Process of reflectiono Interactions with others Imagine how our behaviors will look to others Interpret others reactions to our behavior We develop a self-concepto Tend to care more what our family/friends think than strangers- The I & the Meo George Herbert Meado “I” self The subjective self  What do I want? Self-fulfillment- Ex. Ms. Poling would cancel all our classes if she only listened to her “I” self o “Me” self The objective self Concerned with how other people might interpret our actions How do others see me?- Ex. She can’t cancel classes because her boss would see her as lazy/ students will complain and fire her 3 stages of how the “Me” develops- Imitations stage: (0-2yrs) kids copy others, no meaning is associated with their actionso Ex. Mom feeds baby soup, so baby feeds soup to mom’s friend- Play stage: (3-5yrs) play roles and begin to take characteristics of important people in their worldo Ex. Kids pretend to be mom while playing house so they take on role of mom and feed/take care of their friends- Game stage: (elementary school+) begin to understand that others haveexpectations and demands placed upon themo Generalized other: our sense of otherso Ex. Baseball team shows how each player must fulfill their own position in order to win- Theory of Cognitive Developmento Jean Piaget; 4 stageso Cognitive development: a person’s ability to think and reasono 1. Sensorimotor stage: (birth-2yrs) Infants learn to experience and think about the world thru their senses and motor skills- Ex. Play peak-a-boo b/c the baby thinks you actually aren’t there when your hands are covering your face so they are entertainedo 2. Preoperational stage: (2-7 yrs) Ability to speak grows rapidly- Ex. “A” stands for apple, picture of an apple represents an apple tooo 3. Concrete operational: (7-12 yrs) Can think about objects in the world in more than one way and begin to understand casual connections to their surroundings and realize other people have feelings- Ex. Fold paper into an airplane, child understands that it is still paper (not actually an airplane)o 4. Formal Operational: (12+) People become able to comprehend abstract thoughts- Ex. Capable of taking/understanding algebra now (x+y/z=64)- Theory of Moral Developmento Laurence Kohlberg; 3 levelso 1. Pre-conventional level We make moral judgment based on hedonistic principles- Hedonistic principles: seek pleasure over pain- Ex. Give candy to child when they get a good grade so they will want to continue getting good grades to get more candyo 2. Conventional level Use of norms and rules to


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