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FSU SYG 1000 - Final Exam Review

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SYG1000 Final Exam ReviewThis document consists of notes that are based off of in-class PowerPoints and subsequent lectures. There isquite a bit of material for this exam, so I recommend reading through this as many times as you can in order tobe completely prepared. This should serve as a great tool for those looking to get a complete and detailedguideline to everything covered during class time. Best of luck on the exam and I sincerely hope these help!Tuesday, 7/12/11 Social StratificationSocial Stratification- Systematic social inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships. Society is broken up into strata/layers, and people in different levelshave access to different opportunities. People at the top have power and prestige. Your position in the social hierarchy can pass from generation to generation.Views of Inequality Rousseau- social inequality- human kind is inherently good. The emergence of private property led to social ills. Private property helps us acquire wealth, leads to competition, aggression, and a social hierarchy (resulting in equality).- Physical/natural inequality- Social/political inequality- the result of unequal distribution of privileged resourcesMalthus- thinks inequality is the result of a surplus. When people become more efficient they become better able to save up needed resources. Human populations would grow if they went unchecked. Inequality arises as a check to slow population growth.Hegel- dialectal relationship between servant and master. Master is dependent on the servant to perform menial tasks.Types of Equality- Ontological equality- religious idea that everyone is created equal- Equality of opportunity- everyone has an opportunity to go to school, everyone starts out at the same level. What happens after that is up to you- Equality of condition- assumes there is a level playing field and there are the same rules, and that everyone has the same chance for success but rules of the game need to be altered to account for existing inequalities (affirmative action)- Equality of outcome- each player should end up with the same amount regardless of how they acted or the rules (the only insensitive to get something is altruistic)Forms of Stratification- Estate system- there is a political bases for stratification; laws, rights, and duties distribute power unequally (very little social mobility)- Caste system- stratification is not necessarily politically regulated, but rather religion. No social mobility.- Class system- based on income, wealth, and economic factors. Little more social mobility- Status hierarchy system- prestige and status are relative, the way we define status is dependent on the individual, society- Elite-mass dichotomy system- when a small amount of people hold the majority of the power. The decisions they make effect a far larger population than the one they make upo Meritocracy-the cream rises to the top; the best people rise to the top because they’re the best people to be there1Stratification in the U.S.- Socioeconomic status- occupation, level of prestige. Classify groups, individuals, activities, households, wealth, education, prestige- The upper class- those who receive greater return on investments rather than wages. 1%- Middle class- individuals with non-manual/non-service sector jobs that pays significantly more than the poverty line- Poor- federal definitions on what it means to be poor. o Absolute poverty- you have nothing, no food or sheltero Relative poverty- you may have some of the things you need but not up to the middle class living standard- Income v. WealthWednesday, July 13, 2011Florida’s minimum wage: $7.31Social Mobility- Social mobility- movement between positions within a system of social stratification- Closed vs. Open Systemo Closed system- caste systemo Open- class system- Intragenerational mobility- the social mobility that occurs within your lifeo Horizontal- movement from one position to another within the same social level changing jobs without altering occupation status, or moving between social groups having the same social statuso Vertical- the degree to which an individual’s or group’s status is able to change in terms of position in the social hierarchy due to movement from one social level to a higher or lower one do to changing jobs or marrying up or down accountant at Enron loses job and becomes destitute- Intergenerational mobility- movement occurs from one generation to the next, when a child moves from a social class different than their parents- Structural mobility- a type of forced vertical mobility that results from a change in the distribution of statuses within a societyViews on Inequality- Functionalist perspective- inequality is a necessary part of life that exists to maintain the social order- Conflict theory- against inequality, thinks it creates inter-group conflict. Look at the way the poor and rich have different interests and how that creates conflict- Symbolic interactionism- inequality is part of our presentation of selfWhat is the compassion gap- Society wants to help the poor but policy doesn’t reflect itHouseholds in catastrophic poverty has increased every year since 1999.Monday, 7/18/11 Race and Ethnicity2Race and EthnicityRace: a socially defined category based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of peopleEthnicity: a socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or other cultural factorRace: Ethnicity:Externally exposed VoluntaryInvoluntary Self-definedHierarchal NonhierarchalPhysical difference Fluid and multipleExclusive CulturalUnequal BalancedTypes of EthnicitySymbolic ethnicity- choice, might not be salient at times, Situational ethnicity- illustrates how ethnic and racial identification is socially constructed. How people choose to assert or not assert a salient aspect of their identity or heritage in a particular situationWhat is a “minority”?Members of a social group that is systematically denied the same access to power and resources available to society’s dominant group, but not necessarily fewer in numbers than the dominant groupRacism- a system of domination operating in social processes and social institutions, can also operate in the individual consciousness. Can refer to explicit beliefs in racial supremacy. Often embedded in the social structure and operations ofsociety- Institutional-


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