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FSU SYG 1000 - Chapter 5

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Chapter 5Erving Goffman (p 98, 91, etc.)- did the most to create a new field of study called microsociology or social interactionMicrosociology (p 98) - everyday human interactions on a small scaleSocial interaction (p 98) - any relationship of two or more individualsCivil inattention (p 93) - acknowledgment of stranger in our environmentNonverbal communication (p 94) - face gestures, and emotion – body gestures or postures are culturalRoles (p 91) - a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and normsStatus (p 91) - social standingSocial position (p 91) - the position of an individual in a given society and cultureImpression management (p 91) - goal directed conscious or unconscious processing which people attempt to influenceUnfocused interaction (p 95) - interaction occurring among people present in the same setting but where they are not engaged in direct face to face communicationFocused interaction (p 95) - expressions people give or give offEncounter (p 96) - unexpected or casual meeting with someone or somethingAudience segregation (p 92) - the ability to present different performances to different audiences in order to maintain different relationshipsRegionalization (p 97) - time-space dimension of social interactionEthnomethodology (p 99) - Harold garfinkel – study of how people make sense of what others day and do in the course of daily social interaction- Verbal search procedures – used to break down social interaction and reveal the taken-for-grantedConversation analysis (p 101) - approach to the study of natural conversationInteractional vandalism (p 102) - when a person of lower status breaks Ru; es pf everyday social interaction that are of value to the more powerfulZones of personal space (p 99) –intimate, personal, social, publicChapter 8Social stratification / characteristics of stratification systems (p 163, etc.)- How individuals and social groups are divided in society and the inequalities of wealth and power that resultStructured inequalities (p 163) - social inequalities that result from patterns in the social structureSlavery (p 163) - a form of social stratification in which some people are literally owned by others as their property. Total subjection of individual to the interests of their ownersCaste systems (p 163) - social system in which ones social status is given for life. Social life is segregated. Intimate relationships are restricted to members of one own caste.Class (p 163) - a large group of people WH hold similar material prosperity and powerClass divisions based on basic differences in income, wealth, education, and occupation (pp 164-166) – - Income: payment usually derived form wages, salaries, or investments. Unequal distribution of income among class groups- Wealth: the assets that an individual owns, such as cash, savings, and checking accounts and investments in stocks, bonds, and real estate. Unequal distribution across class groups. Racial divisions persist- Education: college education predicts occupation, income, nd wealth later in life. Racial differences persist- Occupation: affected by education. Affects income and wealthClass and lifestyle differences (pp 166-169) – economic capital and cultural capitalMarx’s analysis of class (p 169) - class is based on relationship to the means of production. How production of material gods in carried on in a society, including technology and social relations between producers- Capitalists: people who own companies, land, or stocks and use them to generate economic returns- Working class: people who sell their labor to capitalists and generate surplus valueWeber’s analysis of class (p 169) - besides relationships to the means of production, class divisions depends on skills, credentials, and social status. Pariah groups prevented from opportunities (groups who suffer from negative status discrimination)The upper class (p 172) - broadly composed of the more affluent members of society, especiallythose who have inherited wealth, own businesses, and hold large numbers of stocks (shares)(Upper and lower) middle class (p 173) - composed broadly of those working in white collar and lower managerial occupations. Occupational prestige, income, and wealth split middle and lower middle classesThe working class (p 174) - broadly composed of people working in blue collar or manual laboroccupationsThe lower class (p 174) - composed of people who work part time or not at all and whose annualhousehold income is typically below 20,000The “underclass” (p 174) - individuals situated at the bottom of the class system, often composed of people in the highest poverty neighborhoods of the inner citySocial mobility (p 175) - movement of individuals or groups in social position. Changing from low class to middle class etc.Intergenerational mobility (p 175) - social movement within or between social classes, change occurring from one generation to the nextIntrargenerational mobility (p 175) - occurring within an individuals lifetimeAbsolute vs relative poverty (pp 177-8)- Absolute: the minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence- Relative: poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given societyPoverty line (p 179) - an official government measure that defines those living in poverty in the untied states. In 2011, $22,350 annually was the poverty income for a family of four.The working poor (p 220) - people who work, but whose earnings are not enough to lift them above the poverty line- In 201 minimum wage was 7.25 for full time annual income of 14.500- Only 5 percent of low income families that work full time, full year qualify for welfareThe feminization of poverty (p 180) - an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female. Growing numbers of women who are single mothers, divorced, or separated.Chapter 9Globalization (p 192) - the increased economic, political, and social interconnectedness of the worldGlobal inequality (p 193) - the systematic differences in wealth and power between countriesHigh, middle, and low-income countries (pp 193- 194)- High income- highly industrialized, 14.2 percent of the world’s population, 66 percent of the world’s total income- Middle income countries – diverse group. Varying levels of industrialization. 71.7 percent of the world’s population. 31 per cent of the world’s total income- Low income countries- diverse group. Mostly agricultural, in early phase of industrialization.


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