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FSU SYG 1000 - Chapter 10: Race and Ethnic Stratification

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Sociology Exam 3 Study GuideChapter 10: Race and Ethnic StratificationRace: the division of people based on certain physical characteristics Ethnicity: classification of people who share a common cultural, linguistic, or ancestral heritage Majority Group: the group that has the largest population in society and holds significant power and privilegeMinority Group: a group that has a smaller population and has less power than the majority groupDominant Group: the group that has the greatest power, but not necessarily the greatest numberColonialism: the imposition of control over a weak nation by more powerful country Racism: discrimination based on a person’s raceGenocide: the attempt to destroy or exterminate people based on their race and/or ethnicityHate Groups: organizations that promote hostility or violence toward others based on race and other factorsConquest: is the domination over a group of people by a superior forceAnnexation: the incorporation of one territory into anotherVoluntary Immigration: the willing movement of people from one society to anotherInvoluntary Immigration: the forced movement of people from one society to anotherEthnic Cleansing: refers to the persecution through imprisonment, expulsion, or murder of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity in majority-controlled territory Migrant Superordination: the conquest of a native population by a more powerful group Indigenous Superordination: subordination of an immigrant group to a dominant groupPluralistic Minorities: are groups that enter into an area voluntarily but seek to maintain their own culture while also integrating into the dominant groupAssimilationist Minorities: groups that seek to shed their old ways and integrate themselves into mainstream society Secessionist Minorities: are groups that voluntarily separate themselves from the dominant group with disdain, believing that it will corrupt the group’s belief systemMilitant Minorities: groups that seek to overthrow the existing system because they see it as unjustEthnic Enclaves: neighborhoods where people from similar cultures live together and assert cultural distinction from the dominant group Prejudice: refers to the negative attitudes about an entire category of peopleStereotypes: simplified perceptions people have of an entire group that are usually based on false assumptions Discrimination: the unfair treatment of people based on a prejudice Institutional Discrimination: maintains the advantage for the dominant group, while providing the appearance of fairness to all. Scapegoat: making an unfair accusation against a person or group as a cause of a problemSegregation: forced separation because of factors such as race, gender, or ethnicityCycle of Poverty: generational barrier that prevents poor people from breaking into the middle and upper classes Color-blind Racism: the idea that racism still exists in society in more subtle waysDouble Consciousness: the sense that a person must keep a foot in two worlds, one in the majority group’s world and one in the minority group’s world.Chapter 11: The Social Side of SexSex: is the biological makeup of a male or femaleGender Identity: is our perception of ourselves as male or female Patriarchy: is a social system in which the father serves as head of the family, and men have authority over women and children Matriarchy: is a social system in which women are the main authority and hold power over men Sexism: is the belief that one sex is superior to other Gender Roles: are society’s expectations of how males and females should act and thinkCalalai: are anatomical females in Bugis society who assume the characteristics of menCalabai: are anatomical males in Bugis who adhere to some of the responsibilities of womenBissu: are androgynous members of Bugis society who embody the perfect mixture of male and female Human Capital Model: assumes that men and women bring different natural skills to the workplaceChoice Model: explains the income gap by analyzing the kinds of jobs women choosePatriarchy Model: assumes that we have a male-dominated society that doesn’t allow women to hold upper-tier jobsGlass Ceiling: is an invisible barrier preventing women from reaching executive-level positions in the workplaceFeminism: is the vast collection of social movements and theories about gender differences, proposing social equality for all people Machismo: is overt and exaggerated displays of masculinity Chapter 12: Aging and HealthObesity: is an unhealthy accumulation of body fatHealth: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmitySocial Epidemiology: is the study of the distribution of diseases in health throughout a society’s populationSick Role: is the expected behaviors and responsibilities appropriate for someone who is ill Medicalization: the idea that the medical community is the center of many aspects of American societyHealth Care: the care, services, or supplies related to a person’s healthMedicare: a government run social insurance program that provides health coverage for people 65 years or olderMedicaid: a form of government health insurance designed for the poor and disabledGerontology: the study if aging and the elderly“Young Old”: a cohort that consists of people between the ages of 65-75“Old Old”: a cohort that consists of people over the age of 75“Sandwiched” Generation: the generation that takes care of both its children and its elderly parentsAgeism: prejudice and discrimination based solely on age Disengagement Theory: states that reduced interaction between older persons and other is unavoidable, mutual, and acceptable to both the individual and societyActivity Theory: states that life satisfaction depends on maintaining an involvement with life by developing new interests, hobbies, roles, and relationships In addition to this, I would review the readings that we have been previously quizzed on (that can be found on the SYG1000

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