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FSU SYG 1000 - Midterm Study Guide

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SYG 1000-02/05Midterm Study GuideThe following concepts may appear on the first exam. I encourage you to define each concept, think about relationships between concepts and try to apply each concept to a real world example.What is Sociology?The systematic study of societythe main goal of a sociologist is to understand social situations and to look for repeating patterns of societywe observe society using scientific methods that are prescribed by theorieswe examine the group not the individualScope of Sociology•Individual and Society•Social Institution•Group and Group Life•Culture•Social Problems•Crime•Social Stratification•Social ChangeSocial LocationA person’s place in societyDefined by race, gender, class, religion, sexualityImportance of SociologyFor the individual:To realize that individuals are never “alone”For Society:Understand social realities, values, assess social problems and their solutionsAt the Global Level:Understand social differences and try to understand that mechanisms that contribute to a peaceful existenceThe Sociological Imagination•C. Wright Mills•The awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, and which awareness allows use to comprehend the links between immediate personal settings and the remote, impersonal social world that surrounds us.Karl MarxMajor figure in the founding of sociologyEmile DurkheimSocial Integration – society is held together by solidarityDivision of laborMechanical Solidarity – traditional societies shared common culture and sense of moralityOrganic Solidarity – modern societies with division and labor and diverse interests people are interdependentMax WeberThree components of inequalityEconomic (class position); social (status); political (power)Interrelated: top of one bottom of otherThree Dominant Perspectives—Conflict, Functionalism, InteractionismFunctional Persp of Sociconflict theory of socializationsymbolic interaction perspectiveWhat motivates social research?PersonalPolicyacademicLink Between Theory and DataResearch QuestionCorrelationA relationship where 2 or more variables change together3 criteria of causationtemporal order: one has to occur prior to the otherassociation: aka correlationnon-spuriousness: no other variable can explain the observed relationshipHypothesis – an educated guessQualitative dataObservation concerned with deriving meaningInductive reasoning: general  SpecificQuantitative dataStats to understand patterns in which the behavior, attitudes, or traits can be translated in numerical valuesDeductive reasoning: specific  generalInductive versus deductive reasoningInductive reasoning, also known as induction or informally "bottom-up" logic,[1] is a kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general propositions that are derived from specific examples. Inductive reasoning contrasts with deductive reasoning, in which specific examples are derived from general propositions.Reliability – consistency with which the same measure produces similar results time after timeValidity – degree to which a measure is accurate and really measures what it claims to measureSurveys – self administered, face-to-face, telephoneAttitudes, behaviors, self-reports, characteristics, demographicsFieldwork – participant observation, non-participant observationContent AnalysisExperiments – lab-based experiments and natural or field experimentsAscribed statusPosition you’re born intoPosition within social structure born intoSex, race, ethnicityAchieved statusStatus you earnPosition occupied within that social structureParent, student, nurse, criminalMaster statusIdentify yourself above all othersWhen you go to a party, how you think about yourselfRolesExpectations of a given statusi.e. prison guard vs prisonerRole StrainGiven status that comes with expectations that seem to be at odd with one anotherRole ConflictWhen a person has two or more roles to fulfill, and the expectations of those roles seem at odds with one anotherWhat is socialization?Process by which we learn the ways of societyConsequences of SocializationEstablished self-conceptsCreates the capacity for role takingCreates the tendency for people to act in socially appropriate waysMakes people bearers of cultureThe SelfExperience of a distinct, real personal identity that is separate and different from all othersThe Development of the SelfSigmund freudId: biological drives, instinct – achieve pleasure avoid painEgo: part that deals wit real word, reasonSuperego: the conscious and the ego – idealPsycho: sexual stages of develpmentMead and the development of the selfIdeas: how in development we come up how our behavior is evaluated by others and how you react/dress etc accordinglyGeneralized otheri.e. as children we learn by interacting with otherssubject “I” object “me”Imitation- until 3 we can only mimicPlay- 3-6 pretend to take roleTeam Games: organized play and team gamesThe looking glass selfCharles Cooley – the self develops through our perception of other’s evaluation and appraisals of usImagine how we look to othersWe imagine t=other peoples judgments of usWe experience a feeling of ourselves based on perceptions of other people’s judgmentsi.e. flirting and evaluation their pos/neg reactions towards itErving Goffman and the SelfImpression of managementDramaturgy – we are on a stageImpression management:Effort to control others perceptions of usUse of self-presentation and performance tacticsDramaturgySocial life is analyzed in terms of theatrical performanceFront stage, back stage, cooling the mark outAgents of SocializationThe family: single MOST SIGNIFICANTKohn: working class vs middle class parentsSchoolHidden Curriculum: latent function of schoolingCultural message we teach our childrenPeer groups: more important than the parents during the teenage yearsThe media:Teaches social normsReinforces norm from birth to deathi.e. Disney, barney, doraAdult SocializationSocialization never stopsResocialization: replacing previously learned norms and values with diff onesTotal institutions: prisons, cults and mental hospitalsTake away your sense of identitystrippedTheoretical perspectives of socializationfunctionalist, conflict, symbolic interactionist PerspectivesFunctional Persp of Sociconflict theory of socializationsymbolic interaction perspectiveWhat is a group?A collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another and interact with each


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