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FSU SYG 1000 - Exam Two Review

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SYG1000 Exam Two Review1) Chapter Fivea) Socialization – The process that teaches the norms, values, and other aspects of a culture to new group membersi) Primary Socialization – Socialization that occurs during childhoodii) Secondary Socialization – is the dynamic whereby socialization continues throughout our livesb) Nature vs. Nurturei) Nature Theory – states that the genes that we get from our parents at conception are the primary cases of human behaviorsii) Nurture Theory – States that our environment influences the way we think, feel and behave.iii) Avoid extreme thoughts on nature and nurture a mix is always goodiv) Feral Child are wild and may be locked away and don’t get human attentionc) Looking-glass self – The theory that self develops through a process of reflection, like a mirrori) Charles Cooley – One of the central theorists of the development of the self. He believed it was through a process of reflection. He said it took three steps(1) We imagine how our behaviors will look to others(2) We interpret others reactions to our behavior(3) We develop a self-conceptd) The I and the Mei) George Herbert Mead – He thought that the self is the part of personal identity that has both self-awareness and self-image. He also believed that the development of the self involved reactions with others.ii) “I” Self – the subjective part of the selfiii) “Me” Self – the objective part of the selfiv) Three Stages(1) Imitation Stage – this is Meads first stage of development, which is the period from birth to about age 2, and is the stage in which children merely copy the behaviors of those around them.(2) Play Stage – this is Meads second stage of development, which occurs around the ages of 2-4 years, during which children play roles and begin to take on the characteristics of important people in their world(3) Game Stage – this is Meads third stage of development that never truly ends, and us the stage in which we begin to understand that other have expectations and demands placed upon them.(a) Generalized other – is our sense of otherse) Eight Stages of Development i) Erik Erikson – He proposed that humans develop a personality in 8 psychological , or psychosocial, and social stages, and during each stage we experience a particularpsychosocial crisis that will be resolved either positively or negatively, and each outcome will have an effect on our ability to deal with the next one.(1) Trust vs. mistrust (birth – 1 year)(2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-3 years)(3) Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 years)(4) Industry vs. Inferiority (6-puberty)(5) Identity vs. Role Confusion (teen-20s)(6) Intimacy vs. Isolation (20s-early 40s)(7) Generativity vs. Stagnation (40s – early 60s)(8) Integrity vs. Despair (late 60s- early 80s)f) Theory of Cognitive Developmenti) Jean Piaget - Focused on a persons ability to think and reasonii) Sensorimotor Stage – The stage (birth – 2years) at which infants learn to experience and think about the world through their senses and motor skillsiii) Properational Stage – is the stage (ages 2-7 years) at which the ability to speak grows rapidlyiv) Concrete Operational Stage – is the stage (ages 7-12 years) at which children can think about objects in the world in more than one way and start to understand casual connections in their surroundings.v) Formal Operational Stage – is the stage (ages 12 and above) at which people become able to comprehend abstract thought.g) Theory of Moral Developmenti) Lawrence Kohlberg – suggested that moral reasoning occurs on three specific levels: preconventional, post conventional, and conventional.(1) Pre-conventional Level – is the first stage of moral development that lasts through the elementary school years; at this level, children make their moral judgments within a framework of hedonistic principles.(a) Hedonism – is seeking pleasure over pain(2) Conventional level – This is the second stage of moral development that arises before puberty and uses the lens of norms and rules to determine what is right and wrong. (3) Post-conventional Level – This is the third stage of Moral Development that refers to a morality based on abstract principlesh) Morality of Carei) Carol Gilligan – She suggested that Kohlbergs theories were valid though only when discussing the development of male morality, she thought his conclusions were based against women.ii) Men vs. women – men and women approach moral decisions differentlyiii) Males: morality of justices– morality based on the rules of lawiv) Females: morality of care – morality decided by a standard of how best to help those who are in needi) Agents of Socialization – The people and groups who shape our self-concept, beliefs, and behaviori) The family – Two or more people who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption(1) Parenting Styles(a) Authoritative – parenting style in which parents listen to their children’s input while consistently enforcing the present rules(b) Permissive – A parenting style in which parents provide high levels of support but an inconsistent enforcement of rules(c) Authoritarian – Is a parenting style in which children high levels of social control but low levels of emotional support.(2) Social Class – A group with similar access to power, wealth, and prestige(3) Resocialization – The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors and abandoning old ones.(a) Total institutions – Places in which the most efficient forms of resocialization can occur because they isolate people from outside influences so they can be reformed and controlled.j) Theoretical paradigms examplesi) Symbolic Interactionalism – Resocializationii) Functionalism – Education and hidden curriculumiii) Conflict Theory – Gender Socialization2) Chapter Sevena) Social Stratification – The ranking of people and the rewards they receive based on an objective criteria, often including wealth power and prestigei) Income – The money received through work or investmentsii) Wealth – All of your material possessions including incomeb) Inequalities in income and Wealthi) Poorest 20% of the country only earns 3.4% of the total income, and the richest 20% receives 50% of the total incomeii) 1/5th of American households have an income of lower than 20 thousandiii) The top 1% of Americans control more wealth than the bottom 90% of Americansc) Types of Povertyi) Transitional – A temporary State


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