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FSU SYG 1000 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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Income distribution patterns for social class:Upper class (top 5 percent of the population, earn at least $200K)Upper Uppers (<1% of population; old money)Lower Uppers (3 to 4% of population; working rich)Middle class (40-45% of the population)Upper Middles ($113k-$200K; white collar)Average middles ($49-$113k; less prestigious white collar/skilled blue collar)Working class (30-35% of population; $28-$49k; blue collar)Under class (15-20%; <28%; working poor and poor)Often live in inner cities, rural communitiesIntro to Sociology- SYG1000- Exam 2 Study GuideThe bold is what was listed on Dr. Weinberg’s original study guideWhat is sexual orientation? - Socially constructed, categories (heterosexual and homosexual) developed at end of the 19th century- Product of society or biology? – Kinsey’s Study- Biology:o size of hypothalamus shapes sexual orientationo genetics- distinctive genetic pattern on the X chromosome, passed through the mother- Socially:o People in society attach meaning to sexuality, differs from society to societyKnow the emergence and consequences of sexual identitieso No distinct definition of homosexuals until a century ago when people defined them that wayo Creation of sexual orientation is a product of society, the tendency to be homo or hetero sexual is a product of biologyAPA declaration in 1973 and impact- American Psychological Association withdrew the classification of homosexuality as a mental disordero Impact: caused other organizations to do the same World Health Organizations removed it from International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems in 1992 Federal hate crime law was enacted in 1968 Legislation in 2009 provided protection for gay individualsKinsey’s Study- 1948- Individual’s sexual orientation may have both hetero- and homo- sexual elements- Books revealed people were far less conventional then thought- The Continuum- sexuality is a continuum running from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual. There is a range- Kinsey set stage for sexual revolution- Estimated 4% of males and 2% of women have exclusive same-sex orientationWhat percent of people identified themselves as homosexual, how does that number compare to 2000 census figures?Factors contributing to change from sex-as-reproduction to sex-as-pleasure- Moving to cities from farms allowed males and females to have more sexual freedom- Sexual Revolution (late 40’s to 70’s)- “if it feels good, so it”- Counter-Revolution (80’s)- moral decline; return to family valueso Did not greatly change that people should decide for themselves who to have sexual relationships with, people began limiting their choices for moral reasons or concerns about STDsOrigin of sexual orientation is biology, genes. The origin of homophobia is a term from the gay rights movement and is used to describe discomfort over close personal interaction with homosexuals or bisexuals.Rape- an expression of power, a violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person. Physical attack that leaves emotional and psychological scarso Person is more likely to be victim knows pretty well, take place in familiar surroundingso 1/3 are strangers, 2/3 know attackero **originally on the study guide, Dr. Weinberg wrote “90% know attacker”. However, the textbook does say 2/3 know the attackero Date Rape- forcible sexual violence against women by men they knowo 10% of all teens and 20% of high school girls have reported sexual or physical violence inflicted by the boys they were datingo 2/3 victims are under 18, 1/3 under 12o 1/3 of victims attacked under 18 are by their own fathers or stepfathersViews on sexuality:o Structural-functional approach: explains the contribution of any social pattern to the overall operation of societyo Regulating with whom and when people reproduceo Condemn married people who have extramarital sexo Reproduction outside of marriage would break down the kinship system and hopelessly confuse human relationshipso Symbolic-Interaction analysis: highlights how people interact and construct everyday realityo Social construction of sexuality, the “norm” Century ago women needed to be virgins to be marriage material Discourage sex between children, but educate themo Social-Conflict analysis: highlights dimensions of inequality. Reveals how sexuality both reflects patterns of social inequality and helps perpetuate themo Female prostitutes (less powerful) much more likely to be arrested then male clients (more powerful)o Domination of heterosexuals over homosexuals Queer theory: the body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in US society- Begins with the claim that society is characterized by heterosexism (a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as a “queer”)o Heterosexism victimizes wide range of people (gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, transsexuals, asexuals)o Racism & sexism is wrong according to the law, but heterosexism is widely toleratedo Feminism & social conflict analysis: a social-conflict approach focusing on gender inequality, links sexuality to the domination of women by meno Why would so many women be prostitutes if they were given the same economic opportunities equal to their male clientso Sexuality is the root of inequality between men and womenDeviance- a recognized violation of cultural norms- Ex. Crime, parking in an illegal space- Early attempts to explain deviance: (Biological and Psychological)o Biological: early theories: larger/bigger people are more likely to bully b/c of geneticso Psychological: Deviance results form “unsuccessful socialization”- Recent studies using genetic samples suggest that certain genetic factors along with environmental factors were strong predictors of adult crime and violenceo TOGETHER environmental and biological could push one over the edgeSocial Control- attempts by society to regulate peoples’ thoughts and actions- Ex. Laws, rules, criminal justice system,Why do we know that deviance is socially constructed? - Deviancy varies place to place- Individuals and behaviors become deviant as others define them that wayWhat are the sociological theories of deviance?1. Deviance varies according to cultural normsa. No thought is inherently deviant, it becomes deviant only in relation to particular norms2. People become deviant as others define them that waya. Everyone does something deviant at one time, whether such behavior defines


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