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Florida State UniversitySoiology Department SYG 1000-Introduction to SociologyDr. Gloria T. LessanSpring 2012Study Guide Questions #2CAVEAT: The following questions are a guide to help you study the material for the 2nd Midterm exam. It is not a contract that defines the exam.1. Define socialization. Briefly summarize the contributions to our understanding of socialization advanced by Freud, Piaget, Kohlberg, Gilligan, G.H. Mead, Charles H. Cooley and Erik Erikson. Socialization is the process of learning one’s culture and of cultural transmission (or adapting). It means becoming fully human by developing a personality, cognition and morality. One’s gender, racial/ethnic and social identity are ways in which people achieve socialization.- Freud: Id, ego, and Superego- Erikson: 8 stages of man- Piaget: socialization through cognitive development. Reasoning is a process of biological maturation. We learn through stages (Sensorimotor, Properational, Concrete operational and Abstract operational)- Kohlberg: socialization is learned from others. We develop moral judgment as we age by conforming to norms and values learned.- Gilligan: Like Kohlberg, believes in learning from others, but also believes gender makes a difference in moral judgment. - G. H. Mead: socialization means developing the “self.” We develop though role-taking (imitation, play). Also, he believes in the process between individual (I) and social identity (me). The “I” is unique, subjective, and unpredictable while the “Me” is socially patterned, predictable and objective.- C. H. Cooley: Like Kohlber believes in developing the “self,” but he thinks we do so through the “looking-glass self.” This means analyzing about how we think other see us. This is how we develop a self-concept.2. The above views on socialization sometimes overlap and sometimes, oppose the main argument of another theory. Thus, elaborate on the areas of similarity and difference among the theories.Freud and Erikson both believe personality development involves a constant struggle, it has a biological component, childhood experiences are very important, however they agree we never stop developing.Kohlberg and Gilligan both believe moral judgment is a big part of socialization, and we learn it from others as we age (natural process). However, Kohlberg focuses on that we learn by conforming, while Gilligan focuses on gender differences in moral judgment. Mead and Cooley believe socialization entails developing the “self.” However, Mead focuses on doing so by role-taking and Cooley focuses on “the looking-glass self”3. Compare and contrast Freud’s and Mead’s views on socialization. Include in your answerdescription of and distinctions among the id, ego, superego, “I” and “me.”Freud and Mead believe people are internally divided by who they are and what society wants them to be. Freud calls the divisions the Id, Ego and Super Ego while Mead calls them the I and the Me. (I=Id) (Me=Ego) 4. Briefly describe the role of family, peers, media, and schools on socialization. (Pgs 95-101) These characteristics are not standard across cultures. The family is the main agent of socialization at the primary socialization (infancy through childhood). Peers, school and media become socializing forces during secondary socialization (later childhood and maturity). - Family: mother is normally the most important individual. The region and social class of the family has a distinct effect on patterns of socialization. Children pick up behavioral characteristics from their parents. - Schools: rules set in school make them agents of socialization. (Be quiet in class, punctual at lessons, etc)- Peer relationships: a person chooses to spend a large amount of time with his/her peer group, which makes it highly influential. In children, peer groups greatly influence gender socialization, but in other ages they are extremely influential as well. Peer groups are influential in shaping individuals attitudes and behavior.- Mass media: influences socialization in all forms of society. Almost everyone has access to it. 5. What is re-socialization? Where does it take place? How does it happen?Re-socialization is learning a new identity voluntarily and involuntarily. Regardless, it takes place in total institutions (structured social environments) like prisons, convents, the military, hospitals, and to a lesser extent, even gradschools! Re-socialization involves a degradation ceremony, which ensures the individual that they are changing for the better, followed by the teaching of new rules and procedures as well informal norms to live in a total institution. 6. What is gender, racial and age socialization?These are ascribed statuses that receive and give different treatments from and to their counterparts. In other words, they affect lifestyle and life changes. 7. Elaborate on theories of gender socialization? Distinguish between sex and gender? Are gender differences due to natural or social factors? Describe gender roles within the family.It is very interesting how we treat a baby differently if it’s a boy or a girl. - Freud: the learning of gender difference focuses on the possession of a penis. He says around 4 or 5 boys experience a sense of rivalry with their fathers and girls experience “penis envy.” (Very controversial) - Chodorow: masculinity and femininity are a result of the separation of a child and his mother. Girls remain close to their mothers, while boys cut their relationship and learn not to be “sissies” or “mama’s boys.”- Gilligan: womans qualities are devaluated by men therefore women learn to be more tentative to moral judgment and they evaluate themselves on successfully meeting the needs of others.Sex is a biological factor while gender is a social constructed factor.8. Distinguish between race and ethnicity as social constructs. Is socialization in America the same regardless of family race and ethnicity? How does the latter relate to socialization as a minority group member?Ethnicity is distinguished on the basis of cultural traits such as religion, diet, language, etc. Race refers to physical characteristics deemed to be socially important. No, Race and ethnicity vary across-space and time and they affect life styles. A minority group member will have a very different experience of socialization than those around him. 9. Define and compare the following concepts when applicable: - Group:


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