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FSU SYG 1000 - Study Guide

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Sociology Study Guide• Deviance = any violation of social norms society agrees upon• Crime = violation of norms that are written lawo Street crime = criminalo White collar crime = nonviolent usually for $o Consensus model = laws arise when an unwanted behavior is seeno Conflict model = powerful people write laws to protect their own interest while punishing those whose actions they wish to control • Punishment o Shaming = effort to attach a negative meaning to a behavior  Stigmatized = permanent label to an offender • Can cause repeat offending Reintegrative = effort to bring offender back into society o Deterrence = stopping crime before it happens General = people won’t do the crime because they see the consequences  Specific = measures change in attitude of individuals who committed a crime to scare them from doing it again (Jail)• Why do we have crime?o Positivist = we commit crimes for the outcome  Money, revenge, the risk is worth the rewardo Classical = what is stopping us from committing crime o Theory of anomic = social instability stems from the social structure cause deviance o Conformist = accepts social goals and accepts the appropriate ways to achieve them Example married with kidso Innovators = accepts goals using non accepted ways to obtain them Kidnapping a kid o Ritualist = don’t accept the goals but follow the normso Retreatist = rejects goals and means to achieve them o Rebels = create own means to achieve goals o Differential association theory = criminal behavior is learned Labeling theory = people act like the labels you give them• Primary deviance = the first time offense• Secondary = psychological reorientation that occurs when the system catches a person and gives them a label Marriage and Family• Family = two or more people related by blood marriage or adoptiono Nuclear = husband wife childreno Extended = nuclear family plus anyone else• Marriage = union of two people o Monogamy = one wifeo Polygamy = multiple wives (illegal in USA) Polygyny = 2 or more wives Polyandry = 2 or more husbandso Blended family = contains half-brother/sister, step parents, etc..o In the USA Number of people married down Age never married up Interracial marriage up Kids living with married parents downo Homogamy = marriage between two people with similar backgroundso Endogamy = marriage with in social groupo Exogamy = marrying someone from a different social classo Stimulus – value – role theory Stimulus = attraction Value = similar characteristics  Role = act out the role of a coupleo Commitment  Personel = I want • Based on love Moral = I should• Based on attitude toward divorce  Structural = I have to• There is no other alternative o Marital effects = factors that make marriage work out For example doing things that both of you enjoy or equal division of labor around the house• Divorce o 50% of all marriages do not end with divorce that number is skewed because it’s the same people getting divorcedo Reasons Residential mobility of nuclear family Ongoing redefinition of family and gender It’s easy to file for divorce  Longevity It has become more social acceptable o Romantic love = till death do us apart  Being replaced with deinstitutionalization = social norms of marriage are weako Confluent love = pure relationship  It is only maintained when both partners want to stick around Education Religion • Hidden curriculum = lessons taught in school that are not related to academics o Ex: Sharing in preschool • Teacher expectancy = impact of teachers expectations on student performance • Grade inflation = trend of assigning higher grades than previously assigned grades to students who perform the same • Human capitol = a person’s knowledge, skill, and personnel attributes • Credentilism = emphasis on degree assessing skills and knowledge o Example: previous jobs didn’t require degree but know they do because a degree equals skill and knowledge • Religiono Theism = believe in god Monotheism = believe in one god Polytheism = believe in more than one godo Philiosophies of life = a way of life that focuses on a set of ethnic moral or philosophicle principles o Totemism = honoring a totem or object o Simple supernaturalism = supernatural forces influence life o Animism = spirits live in natural objects and operate the world• Top religions in the worldo Christianityo Islamico Non-religious• Religion in society o Sacred = things that are connected to god or religious purpose Ex: cross, bible, etc… o Profane = things that aren’t sacred o Rituals = established patterns of behavior associated to experience of the sacred  Baptism = in holly


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