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FSU SYG 1000 - Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide

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Sociology Exam 3 Study GuideChapter 13: power-the ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold authority-government’s legitimate use of power state- a political apparatus ruling over a given territorial order, whose authority is backedby law and the ability to use force.  nation states- particular types of states in which governments have sovereign power within defined territorial areas and populations are citizens who know themselves to be part of single nations sovereignty- the undisputed political rule of a state over a given territorialareao “Failed states” like Somalia or Sudan have lost authority and resort to deadly force to retain or regain power citizens-members of a political community, having both rights and dutiesassociated with that membership nationalism-a set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national communityo patriotism in the United States civil rights- legal rights held by all citizens in a given national community  political rights- rights of political participation, such as the right to vote in local and national elections, held by citizens of a national community. social rights- rights of social and welfare provision held by all citizens in a national community, including, for example, the right to claim unemployment benefits for its citizens. welfare state- a political system that provides a wide range of welfare benefits for its citizens. democracy- a political system that allows the citizens to participate in political decision making or to elect representatives to government bodies. participatory (direct) democracy- a system of democracy in which members of a group orcommunity participate collectively in making major decisions. constitutional monarchy-o kings or queens are largely figureheadso real power resets in the hands of other political leaderso the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Japan liberal democracy- systems of democracy based on parliamentary institutions, coupled to the free-market system in the area of economic productiono The United States, Japan, most Western European countries, Australia, and New Zealand democracy in the U.S.o political parties- an organization of individuals with broadly similar political aims, oriented toward achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral process- Two-party systems (winner-take-all elections)- Multiparty systems (proportional representation)o politics and voting- decline in political party identification and strength- Growing distrust of politics and governmento interest groups- group organized to pursue specific interests in the political arena, operating primarily by lobbying the members of legislative bodies lobbying- the act of persuading influential officials to vote in favor of a cause or otherwise lend support to the aims of the interest group. the political participation of women- when women run for office, they do as well as men; the challenge is to get women to runo Of 186 countries, the U.S. ranks 78th in women’s representation in parliamentChapter 14: work- the activity by which people produce from the natural world and so ensure their survivalo work should not be thought of exclusively as paid employment occupation- any form of paid employment in which an individual regularly works economy- the system of production and exchange that provides for the material needs of individuals living in a given society technology- the application of knowledge of the material world to production; the creation of material instruments (such as machines) used in human interaction with nature the characteristics of worko Money Necessary for survivalo Activity level Acquire and use skills at worko Variety Work stands in contrast to domestic lifeo Structuring one’s time Work gives rhythm to daily lifeo Social contacts New friends and social activities through worko Personal identity Work boosts self-esteem the informal economy- economic transactions carried on outside the sphere of orthodox paid employmento unpaid work—nonmonetary exchanges of goods and serviceso off-the-books cash transactions for goods and services division of labor- the specialization of work tasks, by means of which different occupations are combined within a production system economic interdependence- individuals depend on others to produce many or most of the goods they need to sustain their lives Taylorism- a set of ideas, also referred to as “scientific management,” developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, involving simple, coordinated operations in industry Fordism- the system of production pioneered by Henry Ford, in which the assembly line was introduced low-trust system- organizational or work setting in which people are allowed little responsibility or control over the work task high-trust system- organizational or work setting in which people are permitted a great deal of autonomy and control over the work task strikes-a temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees in order to express a grievance or enforce a demand.  labor unions- an organization of wage earners that is set up to serve and advance its members' interests in terms of wages, benefits, and working hours and conditions union density – a statistic that represents the number of union members as a percentage ofthe number of people who could potentially be union members. capitalism- a way of organizing economic life that is distinguished by:o private ownership of the means of productiono profit as incentiveo free competition for markets to sell, acquire cheap materials, and use cheap laboro restless expansion and investment to accumulate capital corporations- business firms or companies entrepreneur- the owner and/ or founder of a business firm monopoly- A situation in which a single firm dominates a given industry oligopoly The domination of a small number of large firms in a given industry transnational corporations- o business corporations located in two or more countrieso in 2009, worldwide production of goods and services was $58 trilliono in 2009, 500 largest transnational corporations produced $9.75 trillion in goods and servicesChapter 15: family- a group of individuals related to one another by blood ties, marriage, or adoption, who form an economic unit, the adult members of which are responsible for the


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