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FSU DEP 3103 - Final Exam Study Guide

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DEP3103: Final Exam Study GuideChapter 10: Emotional Development1) Know the Functions of Emotions section, particularly the functionalist approach to emotion and the different domains emotions are involved in (e.g., cognitive processing, social behavior)a. Emotion – Rapid appraisal of personal significance of situationsi. “Feeling”ii. Triggered because important to individualb. Functionalist Approach – emphasizing that the broad functions of emotions is to energize behavior aimed at attaining personal goalsi. Energize behaviorsii. Prepare for action2) Know the section (including all key terms and developmental patterns, if applicable) in the Development of Emotional Expression sectiona. First Appearance of Basic Emotionsi. Earliest emotional life consists mainly of two global arousal states: 1. Attraction to pleasant stimulation 2. Withdrawal from unpleasant stimulation ii. Middle of first year become well-organizediii. Facial expressions offer most reliable cues of infant emotionsiv. Across cultures, interpret same emotionsv. Basic emotions 1. Can be directly inferred from facial expressions2. Happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust3. Evolutionary history, promote survivalb. Happinessi. Smile – from birthii. Social smile – 6 to 10 weeks1. Social smile = broad grin evoked by the stimulus of a human faceiii. Laugh – 3 to 4 monthsc. Feari. First fears – 6 to 12 monthsii. Stranger anxiety – 8 to 12 months1. Wariness to unfamiliar adults2. Not universal3. Depends ona. Temperamentb. Past experience with strangersc. Current situationiii. Secure base – point from which to explore, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional supportDEP3103: Final Exam Study Guided. Self-Conscious Emotionsi. Self-conscious emotions = involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self1. Include shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and prideii. Emerge end of second yeariii. Need adult instruction about when to feel them1. Adult feedback is strongly related to self-evaluatione. Emotional self-regulation i. Emotional Self-Regulation - strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level to accomplish our goalsii. Requires voluntary, effortful management of emotionsiii. Improves gradually as a result of brain development and assistance of caregivers iv. Well- developed emotional self-regulation à emotional self-efficacy in young people1. = The feeling of being in control of their emotional experiencea. Favorable self-imageb. Optimistic outlookv. Problem-centered coping – Appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about itvi. Emotion-centered coping – Internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcomevii. Emotional Display Rules – Specify when, where, and how it is appropriate to express emotions3) Same for Understanding and Responding to Emotions of Othersa. Begins earlyi. By 3-4 months have expectations for caregiver responses for emotional exchangesii. What happens when violated?b. Social Referencingi. Social referencing = relying on another person’s emotional reaction to appraise an uncertain situationii. Caregivers expression & (especially) voice importantiii. Caregivers can use to teach children how to react1. Ex. A child falls in playground, they will get up and look for reaction from their caregiverc. Empathy and Sympathy i. Empathy – involves a complex interaction of cognition and affect: the ability to detect different emotions, to take another’s emotional perspective, and to feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar wayii. Prosocial or altruistic behavior – actions that benefit another person without any expectedreward for the self iii. Sympathy – feelings of concern or sorrow for another’s plight 4) You don’t need to memorize the specifics of the Milestones of Emotional Development (p.419), butagain, know the general developmental patternsa. Birth to 6 monthsi. Social smile, laughter appears, expressions of happiness increase when interacting with familiar people, emotional expressions gradually become organized signals that are meaningfully related to environmental events b. 7 to 12 monthsi. Anger and fear increase in frequency and intensity, uses caregiver as secure base, regulates emotion by approaching and retreating from stimulationDEP3103: Final Exam Study Guidec. 1 to 2 yearsi. Self-conscious emotions emerge but depend on monitoring and encouragement of adultsd. 3 to 6 yearsi. Self-conscious emotions are clearly linked to self-evaluatione. 7 to 11 yearsi. Self-conscious emotions are integrated with inner standards of excellence and good behavior 5) Know the section on Temperament and Development; you don’t need to worry about memorizing the dimensions of temperament in Table 10.1, but you will need to know the categories that Thomas and Chess describe (e.g., easy child, difficult child, slow to warm up child). a. Temperament i. Temperament = early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity & self-regulationii. Reactivity – quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor actioniii. Self-regulation – strategies that modify reactivity iv. Cornerstone of personalityv. Thomas and Chess’ New York Longitudinal Study (1956)1. First influential modelvi. Impacts psychological adjustment1. Increase chances of psych problems OR2. Protect from negative effects of stressvii. Parenting practicesb. The Structure of Temperamenti. Easy – 40%1. Adapts easily, cheerfulii. Difficult – 10%1. Slow to accept new experiences, negative & intense reactions2. Future riskiii. Slow-to-warm-up – 15%1. Adjusts slowly to new experiences, inactive & fearfuliv. Unclassified– 35%c. Stability of Temperament i. Develops with age à Not very stable1. Overall, low to moderate stability2. Prediction after age 3a. Emotion, attention, and action better estab’d b. Brain development – frontal lobes ii. Experiences influenced. Temperament and Parenting i. Goodness-of-fit model – Explain how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes 1. Temperament & child-rearing environment 2. Good fit à more adaptive functioning3. Poor fit à adjustment problemsii. Positive & sensitive à increase emotion regulationiii. Matching temperament & child-rearing - earlier is bettere. Effortful Control – Voluntarily suppress dominant response in order to


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