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FSU DEP 3103 - Study Guide

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Study GuideTV, Other Media, and Aggression 1. Basic facts about the contents of TV shows and viewing habits of American childrena. On average, how many hours do American children spend with media (TV, movies, videos, computer games, Internet) per week?a. ~40 hours b. By what age are children spending at least 2 hours “glued” to the screen?a. 2.5 to 3 years c. What percent of prime time TV shows contain some violence (murders, rapes, assaults)?a. Fluctuates around 90%d. Saturday morning shows are geared toward children. Does the violence content of Saturday morning shows differ from that of prime time?a. Yes, fluctuates 60-80% but cartoon are higher around 90% e. Across all shows, what percent illustrate some negative consequences of violence (i.e., the persons committing the violent acts get punished)?a. Only 15%2. Consequences of TV and other mediaa. What are some potential positive consequences of exposure to educational or prosocial shows? a. Some educational shows (sesame street, electric company) improve academic skillsb. Some (Mr. Rogers) improve helping and sharingb. Explain when are positive effects most likely to occur?a. When parent or teacher comments on important contentc. What are the potential negative effects of watching a lot of media, regardless of content? a. Viewing media a lot (any content) increases risk of: obesity, low school achievement, seizures, hand injuries, kids bug parents to buy unhealthy productsd. What are the potential negative effects of watching a lot of violent content? Are these effects well documented, or is this research still unclear?a. High level of violent content causes increases in child’s aggression, especially if:i. Violence seems realii. Aggressor not punished or punishment is delayediii. Aggressor is attractive in some wayiv. Viewer is young and cannot distinguish right and wrong and consequences v. Viewer has aggressive tendencies to begin with but effects not limited to previously aggressive kids b. High level of violent content increases almost everyone’s tolerance for media and real-life violence, so people less likely to report and try to stop real-life violencec. High level of violent content; volumes of research show consistent findings across all kinds of studiesi. Findings also hold for different media: TV, media, music, CD, videos, games, etce. What are conditions under which negative effects of watching violent content most likely to occur?a. When parents co view but do not interact and say what they disapprove of3. In class we described several possible strategies for reducing the negative effects of media violence. Describe each of these and indicate which one(s) are most likely to be at least somewhat effective.a. Government censorshipb. Industry self regulationi. Hasn’t worked, despite years of pressure ii. Industry says media violence doesn’t hurt kids “evidence is not clear” when it is!c. Forbidding certain showsi. Problems with it: makes kids want it more or they go see t at a friends houseii. Works with younger kids but will only last so longd. Parents limit amount and negotiate contenti. When kids very young parents can totally controlii. When older; explain why they can’t watch it and then negotiate what shows they can watche. V-chip or other electronic device to control TVi. Problem: rules out some good shows (Schindler List)f. Co-viewing violent shows/media to:i. Contrast what is reality vs. fantasy ii. Must point out negative consequences of violenceiii. Express explicit disapproval of aggression1. Shown to be somewhat effective2. Parents rarely do this g. In contrast, co-viewing and NOT showing clear disapproval INCREASES child’s aggressionh. Active attitude change interventions i. Need more research, but potentially helpfulii. Ex: Children (9-10yrs) produced an educational video, presumably to teach others about the bad consequences of imitating media aggression. Video explained that media is not real and violence is bad 4. In class, we saw a video on catharsisa. Define catharsis and give examplesa. The process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions.i. Punching the bo bo doll or screaming in to a pillowb. How effective is catharsis at reducing an individual’s tendency to express anger/aggression?a. Controversial topic: some believe it releases the emotion while some believe that it leads to more aggressive tendencies 5. The following questions are from Chapter 14a. What is the definition of aggression? a. Behavior that intentionally harms other people by inflicting pain or injury on them b. How does instrumental aggression differ from hostile aggression?a. Instrumentali. Quarreling and fighting with others over toys and possessionsb. Hostilei. Directing aggression behavior at a particular person or group, criticizing, ridiculing, tattling on, or calling namesc. Describe gender differences in aggression.a. Boys and girls do not differ greatly in the amount of aggression, but rather they differ in the way they express it d. Describe how biological factors might contribute to aggression?a. Identical twins have been proven in multiple studies to be more alike then non identical twinsb. Links between hormones an aggression c. Links between temperament and aggression e. Describe each of the parenting and family variables that can contribute to aggression.a. Typically teach boys to “defend” themselves or “to be a man”b. Fighting in front of children and not coming to a positive resolution teaches them to do so c. Physical punishment can lead to hostile children d. Erratic and inconsistent punishment e. Failure to monitor their children’s activities f. If first child became delinquent then likelihood for second child to become so too is high f. What are some good ways to prevent and treat children’s aggression?a. Making aggressive children aware of negative consequences of aggression for themselves and others through modeling and explanation can reduce aggression b. Cooperation and turn taking helps treat aggression c. Fast Tracki. Children went through intervention groups to help with social problem solving, emotional understanding, and communication and to teach them how to regulate their actions in frustrating events Child Psychology Spring 2012 Study Guide Family part 11. The 4 parenting styles , be able to thoroughly explain the following.a. Authoritativei. Warm and responsive; High controlii. Child-centered with set clear


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