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FSU DEP 3103 - Study Guide Language Development

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Study Guide Language Development1. List and explain the 5 functions of language.a. Communicate: with others, communicate info, express feelings, wishes, desiresb. Influence other peoples behaviorc. Escape from reality: using their imagination and fantasyd. Make decisionse. Organize their perceptions and thinking, control their actions, modify emotions2. For each of the 4 components of language (also called 4 faces), be able to: a. Name and define each one. b. Give examples of each one. 1) Phonology: rules for which sounds, sound combinations and intonations are legitimate* Phoneme, Phoneme combinations, Intonation*examples: tug u, bik,2) Semantics: meaning of words and word combinations3) Grammar: Structure of language* Morphology: rules for manipulating morphemes which are the smallest unites of language with meaning. For example, making plural, negation, turning noun to verb*Syntax: how words are ordered in a sentence. For example, where to put negation4)Pragmatics: rules for changing language as a function of context. For example: talking different to a baby3. Define and give example of a. Phoneme: Smallest unit of sound. Example: tu, gu dub. Morpheme: Smallest unit with meaning. Example: un, dog, s, 4. What is the difference between syntax and morphology? What do they have in common?Syntax is the part of grammar that prescribes how words may combine into phrases, clauses, and sentences whereas Morphology is the study of morphemes. They have in common the fact that rulesfor altering root words with morphemes to produce such things as plurals, past tenses, needs to obeyby what the syntax says.5. We discussed 3 different theories of language development:a. Explain the theory in detail. How is it similar to and different from the other 2 theories?b. Explain whether it views children as “active” or “passive” learners of language.c. What does it view as the role of biology in contributing to language development?d. What does it view as the role of environment in contributing to language development? 1) Traditional Learning Theory: uses the principle of reinforcement to account for language development (Skinner). Adults selectively reinforce the child’s babbling sounds that sound like speech. Bandura believed children imitate. a. Major aspects: imitation, generalization, reinforcement, shaping b. Child is a passive learnerc. Language is not different than learning anything else. We are predisposed to respondto reinforcementd. Parents are active and shape language2) Nativist Theory: We are biologically programmed to learn any language, regardless of baby’s genes. We are born with a Language Acquisition Device which is programmed to pick up phonemes, words and grammara. Children need exposure to the environment in order to pick up language, do not needto reinforce or provide correctionsb. Children are not born with knowledge of phonemes, words, grammar of their geneticlanguagec. The child plays an Active role3) Social Interactionist Theory: Biologically predisposed to learn any language with the language acquisition device. Communication WITH adults about something meaningful to child is crucial, participate in social discourse, parentesea. Environment provides support system, communication with adults, social discourseb. Major aspects: Expansion and Recastingc. Child plays an active role6. Scientific Evidence Related to Theories of Language Development: a. Know and be able to explain each of the research findings presented in class. (Most are also in text.) b. For each finding, be able to explain how it supports and/or refutes a particular theory or theories.1) Parents don't hold off reinforcement until kids use good pronunciation or grammar. This refutes what theory? Traditional learning theory2) Language impaired kids benefit from modeling of correct sounds, words, and grammar and holding off reinforcement until child does it correctly. This supports what theory? Traditional learning, only partially3) Kids learn language with little instruction and some learn language without reinforcement orsocial discourse. This supports what theory? This refutes what theory?Supports: NativistRefutes: Traditional learning and Interactionist4) Many similarities across different languages suggests biological programming. This supportswhat theory? Nativist and Interactionist5) Novelty in children's speech not heard by adults (ex. foots, braked) suggesting kids actively trying to apply rules. This supports what theory? This refutes what theory?Supports: Nativist and InteractionistRefutes: Traditional learning, which stresses imitation6) If not exposed to consistent grammar rules, kids develop own grammar. This supports what theory? Nativist and Interactionist7) If parents had to reinforce each aspect of speech, should take years longer to learn. This refutes what theory? Traditional learning theory8) Social discourse behaviors facilitate language development. This supports what theory? Interactionist9) After 1 year, babies lose ability to discriminate sounds not in their own language by become "specialist" - suggest critical period for language development. This supports what theory? Nativist and Interactionist10) Nicaragua school for deaf didn't teach sign language. Kids developed own sign language similar to Creole. Adults didn't do this. Demonstrates: Critical period for language and development and kids look for consistent language rules. This supports what theory?Nativist and Interactionist11) Rules of pragmatics vary across cultures. This refutes what theory? This could support whattheory?Refutes: Pure nativist viewSupports: Interactionist or Traditional Learning12) Quality and quantity of language in home related to how fast child learns language? This could support what theory? Could be explained by all three.7. Which is the most widely accepted theory of language development? Explain why it is the most accepted.Lots of evidence for LAD. Lots of evidence for role of social discourse. Lots of evidence refutes traditional learning.8. Language Milestonesa. Babbling: 1) What is babbling? Strings of consonant vowels for any language2) By what age do most babies begin to babble regularly? About 6 months3) By what age do most babies narrow their babbling to include only the phonemes of thelanguages to which they are exposed? About 8-9 months4) Do deaf babies babble in sounds? What does your answer suggest regarding the cause of babbling? Yes, they babble


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