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FSU DEP 3103 - ILA Chapter 1: Other Social Context of Development

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ILA Chapter 1: Other Social Context of Development• What is Literacy?o “the state of being literate” o “able to read and write”o “having knowledge or competence”o Computer literacyo Historical literacyo Knowledge and skills needed for functioning in particular segments of society• Bronfenbrenner’s ecological modelo Importance of the Micro- and Mesosystemso Proximal sources and distal sourceso Chronosystem • Distal vs. Proximal Influences of developmento "Zone of proximal development" (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that a child can complete. The lower limit of ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently (alsoreferred to as the child’s actual developmental level). The upper limit is the level of potential skill that the child is able to reach with the assistance of a more capable instructor.o Vygotsky viewed the ZPD as a way to better explain the relation between children’s learning and cognitive development.• Silver Bullet Fix vs. Comprehensive Strategies… o What we have now:o Silver Bullet: one single “perfect” program will meet the needs of all students or the “perfect” curriculum will come along & be ideal for every student Single focus policies Silver bullet mentality One size fits all solutions• Smaller classeso or-better teacher training, better testing preparation, more instruction timeo Comprehensive Perspective Child development is complex So solutions to improving literacy are likely to be complex as well If there was a clear way to insure children’s achievement, wouldn’t we have found it by now?Chapter 14: Families• What are parents’ responsibilities in facilitating managing, and monitoring children's’ development? Comprehensive Perspectiveo Children change as they grow from infancy to early childhood and on through middle and late childhood and adolescence.o The 5 year-old and the 2 year-old have different needs and abilities. o A competent parent adapts to the child’s developmental changes. o The Transition to Parenting Whether people become parents through pregnancy, adoption, or step-parenting, they face disequilibrium and must adapt. o Parents can play important roles as managers of children’s opportunities, as monitors of their lives, and as social initiators and arrangers.o A key aspect of the managerial role of parenting is effective monitoring, which is especially important as children move into the adolescent years.o Monitoring includes supervising an adolescent’s choice of social settings, activities, and friends.o Among the most important family management practices are maintaining a structured and organized family environment, such as establishing routines for homework, chores, bedtime, and so on, and effectively monitoring the child’s behavior.• Self-regulationo During middle and late childhood, some control is transferred from parent to child. The process is gradual, and it produces co-regulation rather than control by either the child or the parent alone.o Parents continue to exercise general supervision and control, while children are allowed to engage in moment-to-moment self-regulation• Parenting styles and their effects on children’s development:Authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, neglectful.o Authoritarian parentingo restrictive, punitive style in which parents force the child to follow the parents’ directions and to respect their work and efforto firm limits and controls placed on the childo little verbal exchange is allowedo associated with children’s socially incompetent behavior and aggressive behavioro Authoritative parentingo encourages children to be independent, but still places limits and controls on their actionso extensive verbal give and take is allowedo parents are warm and nurturing toward the child o associated with children’s socially competent behavioro Neglectful parentingo parent is uninvolved in the child’s lifeo associated with children’s social incompetence, especially a lack of self-controlo Indulgent parentingo parents are highly involved with their children, but place few demands or controls on themo associated with children’s social incompetence, especially a lack of self-controlChapter 15: Peers• Theories of play: o Piaget vs. Vygotsky’s views on Play• Piaget (1962) saw that play is both an activity constrained by a child’s cognitive development and a medium that advances cognitive development.o Play permits children to practice their competencies and skills in a relaxed, pleasurable way.o Piaget believed that cognitive structures need to be exercised, and play provides the perfect setting for this exercise.• Vygotsky (1962) also believed that play is an excellent setting for cognitive development.o He was especially interested in the symbolic and make-believe aspects of play, as when a child rides a stick as if it were a horse.o For young children, the imaginary situation is real. o Parents should encourage such imaginary play because it advances the child’s cognitive development, especially creative thought.o Mildred Paten’s classifications of play (Unoccupied, solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative and cooperative play).• Peer relations:o Unoccupied playo not play as it is commonly understood.o The child may stand in one spot or perform random movements that do not seem to have a goal. In most nursery schools, unoccupied play is less frequent than other forms of play.o Solitary play o happens when the child plays alone and independently of others. o The child seems engrossed in the activity and does not care much about anything else that is happening. o 2-3 year-olds engage more frequently in solitary play than older preschoolers do.o Onlooker playo takes place when the child watches other children play. o The child may talk with other children and ask questions but does not enter into their play behavior. o The child’s active interest in other children’s play distinguishes onlooker play from unoccupied play.o Parallel playo occurs when the child plays separately from others but with toys like those the others are using or in a manner that mimics their play.o The older the children are, the less frequently they engage in this type of play. However, even older preschool children engage in parallel play quite often.o Associative play o involves social interaction with little or no organization. o In this type of play, children seem to be more interested


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