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FSU DEP 3103 - Child Psychology

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Test 2 - 1Child PsychologyPrenatal Development Fertilization of egg (mature egg23 individual in a cells nucleus at first) (23 individual in the head of the sperm) Generally during 3-7 day journey of mature egg down fallopian tube to uterus 3 stages of prenatal development (not referring to trimesters)1. Zygote (germinal period) Begins: fertilization (conception) Ends: zygote firmly implants in uterine wall- ~2 weeks (weakly implanted) Implantation: tendrils from zygote penetrate uterine wall (takes another week for it to hang on tighter) 25-65% of zygotes survive: many (not all) that do not survive have severe genetic defects.  Miscarriage: zygote implants, and then un-implants 2. Embryo (embryonic period) (2nd to 8th week) Begins : firm implantation Ends : end of 8th week (bone is starting to form) Period of most rapid cell differentiation:• Cells become different in form and function Most organs formed and crudely functioning (crude movements of systems) Latest developing system: brain and nervous system  1st step of differentiation: 3 layers form • Ectoderm (outer)- outer skin, nervous system, glands• Mesoderm (middle)- muscle, skeleton, blood• Endoderm (inner)- lungs, digestive track  Auxiliary structures develop 1. Amniotic sac: contains amniotic fluid, which protects from shock and temperature changes.Test 2 - 2♦ Old cells accumulate in fluid. ♦ Amnion- outer membrane of sac2. Chorion- surrounds amnion 3. Placenta- outside Chorion, attached to uterine lining 4. Umbilical cord- connects embryo at abdomen to placenta• 1,2,4 develops from zygote (amniotic sac, Chorion, and umbilical cord)• 3 develops from zygote and uterus (placenta) Transfer of nutrients and wastes1. Nutrients & oxygen from Mom’s blood build up in placenta and travel to embryo/fetus via umbilical cord2. Placenta and cord attached by semi-permeable membrane (like mesh)What determines what can pass through and what cant? SIZE (big molecules CANNOT go through.)♦ Nutrients, oxygen, and wastes cross membrane♦ Red Blood cells are too big to cross ♦ Infections and drugs (all drugs) can cross over  Rh Blood factor: Rh+ = you have the factor in blood Rh- + You do NOT have factor in blood Baby’s Rh+ can get into Mom’s blood if Placenta ruptures or during some prenatal tests • Causes mom to build up antibodies to fight Rh+ • Rh factor only a problem if mom is negative and baby is positive• Rh+ = dominant• Rh- = recessive • When can you get Rh+ baby and Rh- mom? –When dad is Rh+• Antibodies generally not problem with 1st baby.Test 2 - 3 5th-8th week: critical period for limb formation“Critical period” for limb formation.• 5th week-already showing limbs• 6 ½ weeks – hands differentiate into finger• 7 weeks- toes start to form• Thalidomide (40s& 50s) - now banned. Greatly handicapped limb formation. Commonly prescribed sedative and nausea drug. Only evident if mom took it during critical period of development for limbs. ♦ This drug was commonly prescribed to women during this time period.♦ Message: effects of substance during pregnancy depend on nature of substance & when it’s used. If it was taken during when the limbs were forming (critical period) then you found the limb defects. But if it was taken before or after this period, there was no effect.  By end of embryonic period: face, limbs, fingers, toes, external genitals, most internal organs, crude functioning of heart & liver, crude movements of ingestion, nervous system begins to develop  Size: 1-1.25 inches. Less than ¼ oz. (16 ounces to a pound) Embryo vulnerability: • Most miscarriages in embryonic period• Embryos vulnerable to largest # of teratogens- (any substance that can potentially be harmful to a developing embryo or fetus)• Type of defects determined by when exposed to teratogen (thalidomide example)(Effects either destruction, structural defect, or functional defect)• Embryonic defects most likely to be structural • Fetal defects most likely to be functional • Zygote problems most likely to lead to destruction  3. Fetus  Begins: start of 9th week (3rd month) Ends: birth Test 2 - 4 Summary: • All organs mature/ develop further• Biggest growth period for brain and nervous system • Finishing touches: muscle, fat, growth • Further formation of genitals. May see gender on ultrasound by 11-12 weeks • Reflexes begin- 20 weeks- suck, hiccup, swallow• 22-26 weeks- if born, some chance of survival ♦ “Age of viability” (previously: 28 weeks)• After 28 weeks, gains ½ lb. per week • Full term: 38-40 wks. • Preterm: before 37 weeks (vulnerable… they will spend time in the incubator) Birth: normal size- 7.7 lbs., 20 inches (5.5-12 lbs.) Incubator for preterm or low birth weight• Sterile environment♦ Mother’s immunities transferred at very end; premature babies miss this • Monitors heart and lungs, which can stop  Preterm & low birth weight- less than 5.5 lbs. • 1. Common causes: ♦ Multiple babies- twins, etc.- mother can’t support as well- sharing nutrients and space ♦ Problems with uterus, placenta-some are genetic defects which increase the risk of preterm pregnancy. Or just something goes wrong ♦ Smoking, alcohol, drugs- account for more low birth weight than any other thing. Most researches suggest that 20-30 percent of women drink while knowing that they are pregnant. More low educated do this but also high-educated women could do this also. (One reason is that they might not know they are pregnant yet.) If you metabolize alcohol faster than it wont stay in your system as long to effect the bodyTest 2 - 5♦ High blood pressure, diabetes ♦ Major stress (cortisol- stress hormones increase); eating habits change; greatly effects fetus; sleeping habits change ♦ Poor health and weight extremes • 2. Problems associated with preterm and low birth weight ♦ Brain and central nervous system - develop late- see restlessness, inattention, speech/hearing and learning problems. ♦ Respiratory system- develops late- allergies, asthma. Chemicals that are necessary for proper breathing are developed late in pregnancy so this might be affected• 3. How to minimize problems♦ Physical and psychological stimulation- water beds and hammocks for babies, big dolls nearby that have heart beats and breathe, touch and


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