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FSU DEP 3103 - Chapter 9- Language

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What is language?System of CommunicationWritten, verbal, nonverbalRule of SystemsPhonology: language’s sound systemDifferent languages have different sound systemsPhonemes: really important in languageSmallest unit of sound that affects meaningExample: CAT How many phonemes? 3PH, ST, CH would each count as 12 letters can sometimes be one phonemeBnik: 0 (not a word)Morphology: language’s meaning systemMorphemes: smallest units of meaningIt is a word, or part of a word, that cannot be broken into smaller meaningful partsPrefixes, suffixes, and root wordsExamples: anti-, pre-, -ful, -ed (past), -ing (happening), -s, un-, re-FARMER, how many morphemes? 2FARM, ERSyntax: rules by which words are arranged in sentencesAdjectives go before nounsExample: The pretty girl walked to classThe girl pretty walked to class (syntaxally incorrect)Semantics: rules for how words can be organized with respect to meaningExample: The bicycle talked the boy into buying a candy barSemantically incorrect because bikes can’t talkPragmatics: rules for appropriate use of language in different contextsTalking more formally to people of power, higher respectDon’t interrupt people while they’re talkingVolume of voice (not being loud in a library)When you violate these rules, you should feel uncomfortableWhen talking to a sibling: Gimme a crayon!When talking to a stranger: May I have one of your crayons?Children learn how to talk to different peopleInfancyCooing (1-2 months)Vowel like noises; pleasant “oo” soundBabbling (4 months)Able to add consonantsLong strings of consonant vowel combinationsBabababababaNanananananaParents will take from these babbling strings and think their child said a wordDeaf babies are capable of babbling; to develop past this babbling stage, you have to be able to hear human speechNormal hearing babies will continue to babble even after they say their first wordsGestures (6-12 months)Nonverbal communicationImportance of gestures StudyIverson and Goldin-Meadow (2005)Used 10 children, 10-24 monthsObserved 8 times a day, play and meal timeAttempt to direct the adults attentionAsked to ignore what might be a ritual actNo ritual acts: blowing kisses or patty cakeResults: 3 main categories of gestures, consistency across children of how they use gestures to get what they wantDeictic Gesture: holding up an object so adult can see it – index pointing, palm pointing, showingPutting a bottle in someone’s face can mean can you open it, or take itPointing at the bottle may mean you want itConventional Gestures: nodding head yes or noRitualized Gestures: child extends his or her arm towards something – repeated opening and closing of palmMeans give mekids are able to communicate before they can verbalize with the gesturesBaby Sign Language24 month old babies using sign language were like 27 months36 month old babies were talking like 46 month oldSigning boosts self confidence and self-esteemWhy Do it?Parents can find out what is going on in a baby’s mindWhat they want or needFine motor skills develop faster than those required for speechWhen can you start teaching?No earlier than 6 monthsBenefitsCan reduce frustration in both children and parentsMakes communication easierIncrease self-confidence in childWhen they can successfully communicate with you and have their needs met, it makes them feel goodEnriches parent-child bondChildren are reaching language milestones earlierFirst Words (between 10-15 months)Infants indicate their first understanding of words between 8-12 monthsPointing to yourself and telling a baby your name and then pointing to someone else and asking them their namesImportant objects to a child would be their first wordsParents, pets, toys, body partsEasiest sound sequencesThings that are going to be easy to say are going to be more likely to be said firstMama, Dada, bye-bye, nigh nightPractice pronouncing sounds in wordsAbout 18 monthsJuice: -du, ju, dus, jus, sus, jusiCan have the word down, but still working on how to say it, playing with the soundTimemba: rememberPagetti: SpaghettiVocabulary18 months: 50 words2 years old: 200 words6 years: 10,000 wordslearning a lot of words very quicklyOverextensionApply words too broadlyExample: Use the word car for buses, trains, trucksExample: Saying doggy for all four-legged animalsAccommodation, schemasUnderextensionApply words too narrowlyExample: Dad’s yellow Chevy Malibu is only thing carExample: Goes to zoo and won’t call bear a bear because only his special teddy is a bearTelegraphic Speech: 18-24 monthsFocus on high content words and leave out smaller, less important onesExample: “Mommy shoe now,” “Go car,” “More cookie,” “where ball”Have to be present to understand context because “Go car” can mean a lot of things3 years of AgeKids being able to link words together3, 4, 5 word combinationsShort, simple sentences4-5 years of Ageunderstand and use morphemes – tendency to overuse or incorrectlySaying “goed” instead of “went”Saying “foots” instead of “feet”Change speech style to suit situationIf a 4/5 year old is around a ½ year old, they’ll change the way they speak to themUnderstanding pragmaticsChild directed speech: short simple sentences, higher pitches, repeat important phrases, and talk more slowly6-10 years old: appreciate multiple meanings of wordsmetaphors, jokesExample: Why was 6 afraid of 7?Ability to understand puns was not possible until middle ageAdolescenceDevelopment of abstract thinking; analyzing the function words play in a sentenceThinking of how language can say so many thingsAbility to manipulate languageOften speak their own dialect – distinguished by vocabulary, grammar or pronunciationExamples: slang: texting languageReadingEarly Childhood (Pre-school Years)What should a literacy program for preschool children look like?Focus on language skills, phonological and syntactic knowledge and letter identificationA longitudinal study found that phonological awareness, letter name and sound knowledge, and naming speed in kindergarten were linked to reading success in first and second gradeMiddle childhoodThis is where most kids learn the skills that make it possible to read and writeUsing language to talk about things that are not physically present, learning what a word is, and learning how to recognize and talk about soundsKindergarten teacher can make the reading/word understanding learning fun so kids don’t even feel like they’re


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