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FSU DEP 3103 - Exam 2 Study Guide Child Psychology

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Exam 2 Study Guide Child PsychologyPrenatal Development1. For each of the 3 stages of prenatal development, be able to:a. Zygote, embryo, fetus a. Name the stageb. State when it begins and endsc. Describe the specific developments that occur during each period.d. Know in general terms the kinds of problems (e.g., structural, functional, destruction) that occur when things go wrong.a. Zygotei. Begins with fertilization and ends when the zygote has been firmly implanted on the uterine wall.1. Fertilization occurs with the sperm and egg nucleus fusing and this occurs as the egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus (3-7 day journey-ovulation).2. Implantation occurs when the tendrils from the zygote penetrate the uterine wall.a. Destruction occurs because many miscarriages occur because the zygote does not properly implant to the uterine wall or it falls off.b. Embryoi. Begins with the firm implantation on the uterine wall and it ends at approximately the 8th week ofdevelopment.1. Most differentiation occurs here (cell formation and functions, most organs are formedand have crude functions)2. Germ layers are formed through differentiation (Endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm)3. Auxiliary structures form from the zygote: Amniotic sac, chorion, placenta and the umbilical cord (nutrients and wastes are able to pass through the semi-permeable membrane)4. Formations: Spinal column (3 ½ weeks), eye differentiation and limb bud formation (5 weeks), hands begin to form (6 ½ weeks), toes (7 weeks). External genitals, most internal organs, crude functions of the heart and liver, crude movements of indigestion, and nervous system also are developing at this time.a. Structural problems are most likely to occur with exposure to teratogens at this time. Most miscarriages occurs in the embryonic period. c. Fetusi. Begins at the beginning of the 9th week and ends when the child is born1. All organs mature further2. Biggest growth period for brain and nervous system3. Finishing touches to muscles, fat and growth4. Further formation of genitals a. Functional damage is most likely to occur.2. The process of cell differentiation.a. Describe what it is.i. The process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.b. During what stage of prenatal development does it occur most rapidly?i. Occurs most rapidly in the embryonic stage.c. Describe the first “step” in the cell differentiation processi. Formation of the 3 gem layers creating: Ectoderm (outer skin, and nervous system), mesoderm (muscle, skeleton, blood), and the endoderm (lungs and digestive track)3. Auxiliary Structures: a. Be able to name and describe the function of each one.b. From what does each develop?1i. Amniotic sac- Contains amniotic fluid which protects from shock and temperature changes. Old cells accumulate within the fluid (useful for prenatal testing). Develops from the embryos DNA.ii. Amnion- Outer membrane of sac which protects the sacs content. Develops from the embryos DNA.iii. Chorion- Surrounds the amnion and is in charge of gas exchange. Develops from the embryos DNA. iv. Placenta- Outside chorion, which is attached to the uterine lining. The placenta is the only auxiliary structure developed from the zygote and the maternal uterus DNA.v. Umbilical cord- Connects embryo to the abdomen of the placenta and allows nutrients and waste to pass through the semi-permeable membrane. Develops from the embryos DNA.4. Explain the transfer of nutrients & wastes between mother and embryo/fetus.a. Nutrients and oxygen from Mom’s blood build up in placenta and travel to embryo/fetus through the umbilical cord, which is attached by a semi-permeable membrane. Blood cells are too big to cross over the membrane, however infectious diseases and drugs can pass through the barrier.5. Rh factora. What is it?i. It is an inherited trait that refers to a specific protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If your blood has the protein then you are Rh+ and if it lacks the protein you are Rh-.b. Describe the condition(s) under which problems can arise, and what happens.i. The baby’s Rh+ can get into the mother’s blood if the placenta ruptures or some prenatal tests causes the moms body to build up antibodies to fight it. This is only a problem if the mother is Rh- and the baby is Rh+. If the baby is negative it isn’t going to send anything over so it’s not anissue.1. It takes a while for the mother’s antibodies to build up and sometimes they accumulate and can be an issue for the next pregnancy. c. What can be done to prevent problems?i. Rh immune-globin shots are administered during the first pregnancy, which acts like a vaccine and can prevent the mother from producing and potentially dangerous antibodies. If the antibodies have already been developed then a blood transfusion with Rh - can take place, which stabilizes the babies red blood cells and minimizes further damage caused by the antibodies already in the babies blood stream.6. What is Thalidomide & what is the important lesson(s) to be learned from the problems it caused in the 1940’s & 1950’s?a. It was a commonly prescribed anti-nausea drug that many women took during pregnancy, which led to limb deformities in some babies. The babies only had limb deformities when the mother’s took the drug during the critical period for limb development, which is usually during the 5-8 week period. b. Different organs have different critical periods for development.7. Age of Viability:a. What is it?i. If born, the child has a chance of survival.b. When is it?i. 22-26 weeks into the pregnancy.c. How does the current age of viability differ from the previous age of viability?i. It used to be said that if the baby was born before 28 weeks the child wouldn’t be able to survive but due to modern medicine the time period has gone down. 8. Weight of babya. Typical weight at end of embryonic period.i. 1.4 ounces, 1.25 inches2b. Typical weight at birthi. 7.7 lbs (5.5-12lbs)c. Define low birth weighti. Less than 5.5 lbs9. Preterm &/or Low Birth Weight Babiesa. What are common causes?i. Multiple babies, problems with uterus or placenta, smoking, alcohol, drugs, high blood pressureor diabetes, major stress, poor health and weight extremities. b. What are problems that result?i. Brain, central nervous system and respiratory development. c. How can parents minimize problems?i. Physicals and psychological stimulation for treatment to individual and


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