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FSU DEP 3103 - Study Guide

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Study GuideTV, Other Media, and Aggression 1. Basic facts about the contents of TV shows and viewing habits of American childrena. On average, how many hours do American children spend with media (TV, movies, videos, computer games, Internet) per week?40 hours per week on mediab. By what age are children spending at least 2 hours “glued” to the screen?2.5 to 3 yrs.c. What percent of prime time TV shows contain some violence (murders, rapes, assaults)?90 % contained some violenced. Saturday morning shows are geared toward children. Does the violence content of Saturday morning shows differ from that of prime time?fluctuates 60-80 (ave 70); cartoons higher (90’s)e. Across all shows, what percent illustrate some negative consequences of violence (i.e., the persons committing the violent acts get punished)?15 % illustrate neg. consequences of violence2. Consequences of TV and other mediaa. What are some potential positive consequences of exposure to educational or prosocial shows? Like seasame street- improve academic skills; Some (Mr. Rogers) improve helping & sharing. b. Explain when are positive effects most likely to occur?Parent or teacher comments on important contentc. What are the potential negative effects of watching a lot of media, regardless of content? Obesity, low school achievement, seizures, hand injuries, buy unhealthy thingsd. What are the potential negative effects of watching a lot of violent content? Are these effects well documented, or is this research still unclear?increases almost everyone’s tolerance for media & real-life violence, so people less likely to report and try to stop real-life violence. Volumes of research show consistent findings across all kinds of studies. Findings also hold for diff media (TV, movie, music CD, videos, games, etc)e. What are conditions under which negative effects of watching violent content most likely to occur?1. violence seems real 2. aggressor not punished or punishment delayed 3. aggressor is attractive in some way 4. viewer is young 5. viewer has aggressive tendencies to begin with but effects not limited to previously aggressive kids3. In class we described several possible strategies for reducing the negative effects of media violence. Describe each of these and indicate which one(s) are most likely to be at least somewhat effective.A. Govt. censorship? Problems:_____________B. Industry self-regulation?-Hasn’t worked, despite years of pressure - Industry says media violence doesn’t hurt kids C. Parents forbid certain shows? Problems: 1. make kids want it more 2. see it at friendsD. Parents limit amount & negotiate content? (When kids very young, can totally control) E. V-chip or other electronic device to control TV Prob: rules out some good shows, e.g., Schindler List*F. Co-viewing violent shows/media to: contrast reality vs. fantasy; point out negative consequences of violence; express disapproval of aggression Shown to be somewhat effective; Parents rarely do this G. In contrast, co-viewing and NOT showing clear disapproval INCREASES child’s aggression-because if you sit there and say nothing they think you. Think it is okay. H. Active attitude change interventions Ex: Children (9-10 yrs) produced an educational video, presumably to teach others about the bad consequences of imitating media aggress. Video explained that media not real and violence bad. Need more research, but potentially helpful.4. In class, we saw a video on catharsisa. Define catharsis and give examplesDischarging aggressive impulses by engaging in actual or symbolic aggression that does not impinge on othersb. How effective is catharsis at reducing an individual’s tendency to express anger/aggression?Not effective5. The following questions are from Chapter 14a. What is the definition of aggression? How does instrumental aggression differ from hostile aggression?Aggression that intentionally harms other people by inflicting pain or injury on them.Instrumental: fighting with others over objectsHostile: directing aggressive behavior at a particular person or group, criticizing, ridiculing, calling namesb. Describe gender differences in aggression.Few differences in infancy; once boys are toddlers they are more likely to instigate and be involved in aggressive behavior, also more likely to retaliate; more physical; girls more relational aggressivec. Describe how biological factors might contribute to aggression?Higher testosterone can be linked to more aggression; temperament can also play a roled. Describe each of the parenting and family variables that can contribute to aggression.Parents may teach their boys to defend themselves; parent’s control tactics may lead to aggression; parent’s physical punishment; if sibilings are aggressive; not monitoring children’s activities, e. What are some good ways to prevent and treat children’s aggression?Making people aware of the negative consequences through modeling and explanations; teaching problem-solving behaviors; intervention groups Study Guide Family part 11. For each of the 4 parenting styles, be able to thoroughly explain the following.a. Where does each style falls on the dimensions of emotionality & control?Warm, Responsive Cold, UnresponsiveHi Control Authoritative Authoritarian Low Control Permissive indulgent Uninvolved neglecting b. Describe in detail each of the 4 styles/ probably child outcomes from each styleAuthoritarian- harsh, unresponsive, rigid, uses power and control; child becomes fearful, can have low cognitive and social development and lower academic skills (more for boys) don’t feel in control, stressed (conflicted-irritable)Uninvolved neglecting- lack of control, don't set clear rules etc. the parent would say YES, do whatever you want. Can cause disruptions in attachment, conduct problems, low self esteem, moodiness, precocious sex, delinquencyPermissive indulgent- Inconsistent discipline, children have higher levels of impulsive and aggressive acts, non compliant (not severe)Authoritative- warm/responsible, involved, reasonable, most linked to positive outcomes like high self-concept, high achievement and low anti-social behavior, energetic-friendly c. Know which 2 styles are likely to use some form of punishment.Authoritarian and authoritative d. Describe 2 notable exceptions to the rules 1. For poor minorities in dangerous neighborhoods, best adjustment w/ authoritarian


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