New version page

FSU DEP 3103 - Child Psychology Notes

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5 out of 14 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 14 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 14 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 14 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 14 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 14 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Child Psychology Notes Dr. Licht Aggression Albert Bandura—Observational Learning Modeling behaviorsBobo doll studyAmount and Type of Exposure kids getAmerican kids spend approx. 40 hours per week on media (TV, media, videos, computer games, Internet)Kids watch more when older, but “glued” to screen for a couple of hrs by age 2.5-3Prime time TV: 90% contains some violence (murders, rape, assaults)Saturday Morning: fluctuates 60-80 (average 70%); cartoons higher (90%)15% illustrate negative consequences of violenceConsequences of Media:Positive effects—some education shows (Sesame Street) improve academic skillsSome shows (Mr. Rogers) improve helping and sharingPositive effects most likely to be seen when parent or teacher comments on important contentNegative effects—viewing media a lot (any content) increases risk of:Obesity, low school achievement, seizures, hand injuries, unhealthy eating habitsHigh levels of violent content causes increases in child’s aggression, particularly if: Violence seems realAggressor not punished or punishment is delayedAggressor is attractive in some wayViewer is youngViewer has aggressive tendencies to begin with but effects not limited to previously aggressive kidsIncreases almost everyone’s tolerance for media and real-life violence, so people become less likely to report and try to stop real-life violence Volumes of research show consistent findings across all kinds of studiesFindings also hold for different media (TV, movie, music, video games)Ways to decrease negative effects:Government censorship? Problem—who does it?Industry self-regulation? Problem—Hasn’t worked despite yrs of pressure, Industry says media violence doesn’t hurt kids Parents forbid certain shows—makes kids want it more, see it at friend’s houseParents limit amount and negotiate content—good idea for older kids, when kids are very young, can totally controlV-chip or other electronic device to control TV—rules out some good shows/moviessuch as Schindler’s ListCo-viewing violent shows/media to contrast reality vs. fantasyPoint out negative consequences of violence Express disapproval of aggressionSomewhat effective, but parents rarely do this In contrast, co-viewing and not showing clear disapproval, it increases child’s aggression Active attitude change interventions: Children (9-10 yrs) produced and educational video, presumably to teach others about the bad consequences of imitating media aggression. Video explained that media was not real and violence was bad. Need more research, but potentially helpfulFamily:I. Styles of parenting during childhood and adolesc. A. 2 separate dimensions: emotionality (E) & control (C) 1. E: (Responsiveness) High: warm, loving, responsive to desires of child, “child-centered” Low: cold, rejecting, unresponsive, “parent-centered” 2. C: (how much control parents exert) High: set clear rules, discipline when rules broken, don’t tolerate unacceptable or immature behav., hold high standards; monitor child’s behav., Low: don’t set clear rules, lack of or inconsistent discipline, allow child to express impulsesB. Parent styles based on combined dimensionsWarm, Resp. Cold, Unresp.Hi C authoritative authoritarianRestrictivedemandingLo C permissive uninvolvedWarm, Resp. C. Child outcomes likely w/each parent style 1. Authoritarian: conflicted-irritable: anxious, low self-concept, don’t feel in control of life—look to others for approval & what to do, vulnerable to stressPermissive: impulsive-aggressive: non-compliant, low achiev. impulsive & aggress (usually not severe delinquent)Uninvolved: lack of attach., low achiev., low social skills, truancy, precocious sex, delinquencyAuthoritative: energetic-friendly: high self-concept, high achiev., high self-control, low anti-social behav., high attach.D. Exceptions to rules 1. For poor minorities in dangerous neighborhoods, best adjustment with authoritarian style 2. Asian (e.g., Chinese) parents who are authoritarian tend to be viewed very positive & have positive child outcomes. “Authoritarian” has diff. meaning in Asian culture, which values family & cultural standards over independence and internal standards.Discipline (punishment)Neg. consequence when child misbehaves Not necessarily physical or severeWhich parents regularly use discipline?—authoritarian and authoritative B. How to use it effectively. 1. When possible, negative consequences should be immediate & consistent 2. Rules & conseq. for breaking rules should be clear 3. Never threaten if cannot follow through. 4. Avoid all physical punishment a) Current recommendation of National Academy of PediatricsReasons to avoid physical punishment:Child gets aroused so less likely to learn lessonMedium arousal—optimal performance (bell curve image)Physical punishment gets child too aroused so less likely to learn Provides aggressive model—like bobo doll, child more likely to be physically aggressive themselves Leads to greatest aggression in young kids and when parents use it inconsistently and/or have negative relationship with kidDanger of escalating into abuse—especially when the child is defiant and the parents usually administers physical punishment such as spankingAlternatives to physical punishmentInfancy:Punishment rarely appropriate before 6 months oldb/c by 6-7 months kids can crawl and get into thingsRecommended reprimand: a firm “NO!” and redirect attentionHabit train to engage in good behaviors, make it easy for them to behave well and reinforce kids for good behaviorStart youngWhen “testing of limits” begins—9 monthsRemove from situation entirelyToddlers and young children:Beginning at 1.5-2 years Recommend: time-out from positive reinforcementCan be used till 7-8 years old (depending on child and circumstances)Punishing with boredomChair in hallway, no stimulation, parent watches throughout TOStart with 1 minute per year of ageHas to sit quietlyNo talking or explaining during TOSending kid to room is not effective b/c their room is usually not boring and it associates bedroom with punishmentProper timing for TO:1. State offence—you it the dog, go to time-out!Child needs to know what behavior is being punished2. TO served3. Rationale—It’s wrong to hurt animals, make rationale appropriate to


View Full Document
Download Child Psychology Notes
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Child Psychology Notes and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Child Psychology Notes 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?