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FSU DEP 3103 - Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide May 2, 2013 (3:00-5:00)DEP3103-01 (Child Psychology)Prof. Novell Tani, M.S., M.A.S.S.Spring 20131. What are the three historical/philosophical views of childhood?• Original Sin o Advocated in the Middle Ageso Centered on the idea that all children are born into the world as evil beings.o Because children are born evil, they need to be shaped to become good. The goal of child rearing was to provide salvation and remove sin from child’s life.• Tabula Rasa o Latin for “blank slate”o Proposed by John Lockeo Favors nurture in nature vs. nurture debateo Centered on the idea that children are born with no preset mental content, so all knowledge and personality comes from experience and perception. Childhood experiences shape adult personality• Innate Goodness o Proposed by Jean-Jacques Rousseauo Centered on the idea that children are inherently good beings. Because children are good, they should be permitted to grow naturally, with little parental monitoring or constraint.2. Nature Vs. Nurture• Debate about whether child development is biological (nature) or environmental (nurture).• Most people today agree that development involves BOTH biological and environmental factors.o Increased understanding about genetic and environmental interactions. 3. What is the discontinuity (or stage) concept? What is the continuity concept?• Discontinuity o “Naturally change from stage to stage”o Developmentalists who favor NATURE describe development as a series of distinct stages. Like the change from caterpillar to butterfly.• Continuity o “Continuously nurture your plants to grow…”o Developmentalists who emphasize NURTURE describe development as a gradual, continuous process. Like the seedling’s growth into an oak.4. Genotypes vs. Phenotypes• Genotype o A person’s actual genetic material. Example: 23rd chromosome pair of XYFinal Exam Study Guide May 2, 2013 (3:00-5:00)• Phenotype o The way in which a person’s phenotype is outwardly expressed in observable and measureable characteristics. Example: Physical appearance of being male due to XY sex chromosomes.5. Zone of Proximal Development• Vygotsky• The difference between what a learner can do with help and what a learner can do without help.o Scaffolding  A learning process in which support is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals.• Less and less help is given as the student gets closer to achieving learning goal on his/her own.6. Piaget’s Sensorimotor Development Theory• The first stage in Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Developmento Lasts from birth to approximately 2 yearso During this stage, an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to his/her sensory perceptions and motor activities.o Six substages: Reflexes (0-1 month)• Understanding of the world purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months)• Coordinating sensation and new schemas (cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information).o Accidentally sucking thumb, then repeating because they found it pleasurable. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)Final Exam Study Guide May 2, 2013 (3:00-5:00)• The child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment.o Picking up a toy with the intention of putting it in his/her mouth. Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months)• The child starts to show clearly intentional actions. The child begins to explore the environment around him/her. The child begins to understand qualities of objects.o Knowing that a rattle will make a sound when shaken. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)• The child begins a period of trial-and-error experimentation.o Trying different sounds in order to get attention from caregiver. Early Representational Thought (18-24 months)• The child begins to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world.7. Aspects of Cognitive Development• Theory of Mind o The ability to attribute mental states (beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc) to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that are different from one’s own.• Object Permanence o The ability for a child to understand that an object still exists even if it not in sight. Peek-a-boo• Egocentrism o Preoccupation with one’s own internal world.8. Aspects of attention/infantile attention: • Habituation o Decreases responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations.• Dishabituation o Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation.• Joint Attention o Individuals focus on the same object or event.o Requires:1. An ability to track another’s behavior, such as following the gaze of someone.2. One person’s behavior directing another’s attention.3. Reciprocal interaction9. Intelligence• Intelligence Quotient o Created by William Stern in 1912.o Combined chronologic age with Binet’s concept of mental age (individual’s level of mental development relative to others).Final Exam Study Guide May 2, 2013 (3:00-5:00)Mental AgeChronologic Age× 100 = Intelligence Quotient (IQ)• Giftedness vs. Mental Retardation o Giftedness: Superior talent for something IQ of 130+o Mental Retardation: Limited mental ability (IQ <70)• 70-55: Mild• 54-40: Moderate• 39-25: Severe• <25: ProfoundClassification of Mental Retardation Based on Levels of Support Needed10. Aspects of grammar: • Phonemes o Basic unit of a language’s phonologyo Combined with other phonemes to form meaningful units such as words or morphemes.• Morphemes o Smallest grammatical unit in a language.o Examples: Prefixes, root words, and suffixes.• Syntax o The ways words combine to create acceptable phrases and sentences.• Semantics o The meanings of words and sentences.• Pragmatics o Appropriate use of language in different contexts.11. Chomsky’s Language Acquisition Device• Proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1957.Final Exam Study Guide May 2, 2013 (3:00-5:00)• Chomsky believed that humans are biologically prewired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way.• Hypothetical module of the brain posited to account for children’s innate predisposition for


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