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FSU DEP 3103 - Study Guide

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Study Guide Language Development1. List and explain the 5 functions of language.• Communicateo Information, desire, needs, emotions, opinions• Influence others• Make decisions• Control our own emotions & behaviors• Escape from reality through fantasyo Okay in moderation 2. For each of the 4 components of language (also called 4 faces), be able to:• Phonologyo Rules for which sounds, sound combinations, and intonations are legitimate Phoneme = legitimate sound (tu, gu, du…) Phoneme combinations (bik, kib, bnmik…) Intonation: emphasis (question vs. statement)• Semanticso Meaning of word and word combinations• Grammaro Morphology Rules for manipulating morphemes (smallest unit of language i.e. words/prefixes/suffixes) Ex: rules for making plurals, changing tense, turning noun to action wordo Syntax How words are ordered in a sentence Ex: where to put a negative, order of subject and object • Pragmaticso Rules for changing language as a function of contexto Ex: talk differently when at a party verse in class, speak to adult then to a baby…3. Define and give example of a. Phoneme = legitimate sounds (tu, gu, du)b. Morpheme = smallest unit of lang. (words, prefixes, suffices) 4. What is the difference between syntax and morphology? What do they have in common?• Syntax is ordering sentences through rules • Morphology is ordering words through rules5. We discussed 3 different theories of language development: 1. Traditional Learning Theorya. Learning language is same as learning other behaviorsb. OC principles that apply to all learning: i. Reinforcement (phonemes, words, grammar) a shaping processc. Role of biology:i. We are predisposed to respond to operant conditioning and to imitated. Role Child and Parent:i. Child = passiveii. Passive = actively shape language2. Nativist Theorya. We are biologically programmed to learn lang. and lang. regardless of baby’s genesb. Born w/ Language Acquisition Device (LAD) programmed to pick up phonemes, words, & grammar that you’re exposed toc. Role of Environment: i. Need exposure for child to pick up language and DO NOOT need to reinforce correct language or provide correctionsd. Role of Biology:i. Not born with knowledge of phonemes, words, or grammar of genetic languageii. If French parents, baby not biologically predisposed to speak frenche. Role of Child:i. Active: actively figuring out the rules 3. Social Interactionist Theory (also called Social Discourse Theory)a. Biologically predisposed to learn any lang. with LAD Environment provides a Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)b. Communication with adults about something meaningful to child is crucial not just listening to adult (“social discourse”)c. Parent discourse behaviors that help (often not intentional)i. Turn-taking games w/ infantii. “Parentese:” gets baby’s attention high pitch, slow, simple, rise in intonation at endiii. Provide more advanced speech when baby readyiv. Expansion and recasting1. Baby: Kitty eat; Parent: Yes, the kitty is eating (expansion); Parent: yes what is she eating? (Recasting)d. Do not need to reinforce correct language or give correctionse. Role of child: Active.6. Scientific Evidence Related to Theories of Language Development:GO OVER THE LANGUGE THEORY SLIDES! a. Know and be able to explain each of the research findings presented in class. (Most are also in text.) b. For each finding, be able to explain how it supports and/or refutes a particular theory or theories.7. Which is the most widely accepted theory of language development? Explain why it is the most accepted.• Lots of evidence for LAD, for role of social discourse, that refutes Traditional Learning8. Language Milestonesa. Babbling:1) What is babbling?i. String of constant-vowel)2) By what age do most babies begin to babble regularly?i. 6 months3) By what age do most babies narrow their babbling to include only the phonemes of the languages to which they are exposed?i. 8-9 months4) Do deaf babies babble in sounds? What does your answer suggest regarding the cause of babbling?i. They do babble similar to hearing babiesii. If parents use sign typically they babble with hands b. First words:1) By what age do most babies use their first words?i. 10-15 months2) Describe the kind of words most likely to be first word of American babies.i. Most often nouns over verbs (not the case in other countries)3) What are holophrases, and give example.i. 1 word that conveys sentences ii. Ex: “me” = I want to do it myself 4) What are overextensions, and give example.i. When a child associates all animals with tail and four legs as a dog5) When does the naming explosion begin?i. 1.5 yearsc. 2-word sentences:1) By what age do most children start using 2-word sentences? (telegraphic speech)i. 2 yearsii. Ex: more milk, no wet, there dog, daddy go2) Are two word sentences similar across different cultures? What theory or theories does your answer support?i. Similar across diff. lang. including sign lang. 3) Young children’s 2-word sentences show proper syntax (ordering of words)d. More complexity than 2-word sentences:1) By what age do most children begin using sentences that are more complex than 2-word sentences?i. 3 yearsii. Ex: Questions (Where you going?); Negation (No break doll); Other tenses besides the present (I learned book)e. Grammar:1) What is overregularization, and when does it occur?i. Over due the rules by applying them to every word (foots, goed)ii. 4-5 years2) By what age do most children master the rules of grammar (not including the exceptions to the rules)?i. 4-5 years3) By what age do most children master the exceptions to grammar rules?i. 7-8 years f. Pragmatics:1) By what age do most children show some understanding of pragmatics?i. 2-3 years2) Give 4 examples of pragmatic rules of language that children learn very early.i. More likely to talk when other person listensii. Give more explanation when situation is complexiii. Repeat self when don’t get responseiv. Talk differently to baby than adult 3) By what age can most children successfully participate in a conversation involving more than one other person?i. 4-5 years 9. Bilingualism:a. List 3 things that can facilitate learning more than one language.a. Start youngb. Don’t mix languages (consistency) c. Lots of exposure and discourse with each language b. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being bilingual?a. Advantages:i. Improves


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