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FSU DEP 3103 - Objective sheet for Exam 3

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Objective sheet for Exam 3 The final exam will be given on Wednesday, April 25 at 7:30-9:30 AM. Remember that no make-up exams are given, without a documented, University-approved excuse. A zero will be given for a missed exam. For final exams, the rules for even documented approved excuses are different, as grades are due fairly quickly after our exam. I will maintain a strict rule that an approved make up exam will have to be completed within 48 hours of the regularly scheduled exam. Structure: 50 multiple choice questions drawn from all readings and lecture. Content: Chapter 10: Emotional Development 1) Know the section (including all key terms and developmental patterns, if applicable) in the Development of Emotional Expressions section - Basic Emotion: universal in humans and other primates, can be directly inferred from facial expressions  i.e. – happy, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sad, disgust (7 total)  same throughout different cultures  driven by nature, promote survival - Early emotion from 2 main arousal states 1. Attraction to pleasant stimulation 2. Withdrawal from unpleasant stimulation Basic 7 emotions [Only these were touched on in lecture or book] - Self-Conscious Emotions: involve injury or enhancement of our sense of self  i.e. – shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, & pride  emerges end of second year  become aware of self as a separate unique individual  Need adult instruction in when to feel proud, ashamed, or guilty. (this changes from culture to culture)  The better quality of feedback from adults results in more intense reactions—more shame after failure, more pride from success. - Emotional Self- Regulation: strategies for adjusting our emotion state to a comfortable level for accomplish our goals  i.e. – suppress anger at friend, decide not to see a horror film  requires voluntary, effortful management of emotions Happiness Happens very early* Smile- from birth Social smile- (6-10 weeks) broad grin evoked by stimulus of a human face Laugh-3-4 months Fear Second half of 1st year* Stranger anxiety- fear to unfamiliar adults (discussed below) Secure base- infants use familiar caregiver as secure base; explore but return for emotional support. Anger & Sadness These negative reactions increase into the second year in frequency & intensity as age increases. Like to be in control. This management improves as result of caregivers and brain development who help kids manage intense emotion & teach strategies for coping. - Problem-centered coping: appraise the situation as changeable, identify the problem and decide what to do about it - Emotion-center coping: if problem-centered coping fails this occurs; internal, private, aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about outcome. - Emotional Self-efficacy: feeling of being in control of emotions  Hence a well developed emotional self regulation  Favorable self image  Optimistic outlook - Emotional display rules: different by societies specify when, where, how it is appropriate to express emotions  Smiling when feeling anxious 2) Same for Understanding and Responding to Emotions of Others - Social referencing: relying on another person’s emptional reaction to appraise an uncertain situation  Beginning at 8-10mo when infants start to explore unfamiliar people, objects, & events.  Caregivers voice- either alone or combined with facial expression- more effective than face alone.  Caregivers can teach children how to respond/react - Empathy: complex interaction of cognition and affect: ability to detect different emotions to take another’s emotional perspective.  Important in preschool years leading to prosocial, or altruistic, behavior- actions to benefit others without an expected reward. (WWJD?) - Sympathy: feelings of concern or sorrow for another’s plight. 3) You don’t need to memorize the specifics of the Milestones of Emotional Development (p.416), but again, know the general developmental patterns Age Emotional Expression Emotional Understanding Birth - 6 mo Social Smile Laughter Happiness increase when interaction with familiar people Organized emotional expressions Match caregivers feeling 7 – 12 mo Anger & fear increase Secure base Detects other’s emotions Social referencing 1- 2 yr Self- conscious emotions w/ adult feedback Language* assists with emotion Appreciate difference in their & others emotions Vocab of emotional terms Empathy 3 -6 yr Self-conscious emotions w/out adult feedback Regulation of emotion Aware of Emotional Display Rules Cause & consequences Empathy becomes more reflective 7- 11 yr Self- conscious emotions linked to inner standards Internal strategies for emotional regulation Conforms to emotional display Rules Reconcile conflicting cues Aware of mixed feelings Empathy improves4) Know the section on Temperament; you don’t need to worry about memorizing the dimensions of temperament in Table 10.1, but you will need to know the categories that Thomas and Chess describe. - Temperament: early-appearing stable individual differences in reactivity & self regulation  Reactivity: quickness & intensity of emotional arousal, attention, & motor action  Cornerstone of personality  Parents can adjust parenting style to fit better with kids temperament - Thomas & Chess’s New York Longitudinal Study  First influential Model  Impacts psychological adjustment by increase chances of psych problems OR protect from neg effects of stress Categories of Temperament Easy Child 40% of children in study Adapts easily to new situation Cheerful child Difficult Child 10% of children in study Slow to accept new experiences Negative and intense reactions Slow-to-warm-up Child 15% of children in study Adjusts slowly to new experiences Inactive and fearful Unclassified Child 35% of children in study [Very simplified version, just shows children can be categorized by temperament] - Stability of temperament  not very stable changes with age  Prediction after age 3 y/o - Goodness-of-Fit Model: explains how temperament & environment together can produce favorable outcomes  Good fit  more adaptive functioning  Bad Fit  adjustment problems (difficult children)  Be positive & sensitive to what your child needs  kids regulate emotions - Effortful control : voluntarily


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