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FSU DEP 3103 - Study Guide Exam 1

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What is Child Psychology?- The study of the behaviors and mental processes from conception to adolescenceWhy study Child Psychology?- Parenting/Teaching/Government- Understand the impact of childhood on adulthood- Better understand ourselves- Helps parents, teachers, and others involved with childrenHow has the perception of children changed over time?- Medieval times (6-15th centaury)- Historical artifacts and paintings suggest that children were seen as separate from adults- Original Sin View (16th centaury)- Puritans (child born evil)- Born evil and stubbornparents responsible for fixing - Harsh, restrictive parenting- Tabula Rasa View (End of 17th centaury)- John Locke- Blank slate (tablet)- ExperiencesGood person- Spend time with child and help become a contributing member of society- Innate Goodness View (18th centaury)- Born knowing right and wrong- Inherently good- Little parenting monitoringharmed by adult training- Today- Kid clothing, kid menus, Child entertainment (Chuckie E. Cheese), Juvenile Court System, Child Labor LawsImportant Pioneers- Charles Darwin- Attempted to make parallels between child growth and human evolution- 1st to scientifically study children- Alfred Binet - French asked him to set up 1st intelligence test to decide which children could attend school- G. Stanley Hall- Paved the way for child psychology in the United States Did not believe in educating woman, proposed that as women’s brains got larger, from education, their uteruses, in turn, shriveled up (resulting in lower fertility rates). - Eric Erikson- Psychosocial stage model- Social focus- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalytic theory - Psychosexual stage model - John Watson- Lab results went straight to radio- Behaviorism influenced thought on children, Little Albert Focus on learning- Jean Piaget- Stage model - Cognition - Children active participants in their development Important Terminology- Development- Pattern of change from conception to death- Biological processes- Changes in the body- Cognitive processes- Changes in thought, intelligence, language - Socio-emotional processes- Changes in relationships, emotions, and personality- Prenatal period- Conception to birth- Infancy- Birth to 18-24 months of age- Early Childhood (Preschool years)- 2-5 to 6 years of age - Middle Childhood (Elementary school years)- 6-11 years of age- Adolescence- 10/12-18/22 years of age- Emerging Adulthood- 18-25 years of age Three issues that child researchers deal with in their research-Nature-Nurture Issue Biology vs. Socialization-Continuity and Discontinuity Continuous development vs. Stages-Early-Later Life Experience Early life is more important to adulthood than later life experiencesTheories of Development:Psychoanalytic Theories- Unique history of child- Series of stages with conflicts that need to be resolved- Resolution or lack there of determines who you become as an adult{Sigmund Freud}- Victorian Age/ Rich white womenbiased results- Not much empirical backing of his works- Psychosexual Theory  focus on unconscious and drives Sex and Aggression 3 PARTS OF PERSONALITY (THE THREE PLUMBERS): ID - gratification/wants/does not operate in reality  EGO - seeks go moderate id and super ego/ tries to balance influences of the other parts of personality/operates in reality SUPER EGO - morals and virtues/conscience/restrictive/does not operate in realityPsychosexual Stages1) Oral (Birth-1 year) - Ego develops (born with Id)- Mouth is pleasure zone (Breastfeeding)- Fixated- term used to describe when one does not resolve stage2) Anal (1 year-3 years) - Potty training (learn to control bowels)- From this stage, the common phrase anal retentive is derived- OCD vs. Sloppy (Anal fixation)- Anal fixation- control issues3) Phallic (3-6 years) - Realization of genitalia (begin sex drive towards opposite sex parent)- Oedipus & Electra Complexes  child develops sex drive and desires for opposite sex parent- Castration Anxiety  fear that father will discover desire for mother and castrate him (seek to be like father to attract women like mother)- [Super Ego develops] takes on father’s morals- Women - Freud believes women have weak super ego (doesn’t develop)- Gender Identification4) Latency (6-Puberty) - Develop intellectually and socially5) Genital (Puberty-Onward) - Sexual desires return- Completion leads to successful relationships-{Erik Erickson}  Psychosocial Stages- Focused on social affiliation with others Basic 5 stages as Freud Added 3 more stages that deal with adulthood (later life experiences)Behavioral & Social Cognitive Theories:- Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Behaviorism- John Watson used Pavlov’s conditioning experiment= Behaviorism - John Watson- Tabla Rasa view- (Little Albert) Fear is learned- Behavior is learned- Environmental (Nature){John Watson} Video- Influenced solely by environment- Tabla Rasa view- Environment stronger than genetics Behaviorism{ALBERT BANDURA}  Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory  Child models or imitates any behavior he or she saw Bobo the Doll (Aggression) Children imitate behavior Social Cognitive Theory Possible to model thought patternCognitive Theories key is conscious thought{Jean Piagnet}  Cognitive Developmental Theory - Actively seeking out information- Schemas- cognitive categories that guide behavior- Assimilation - Take information and put it into categories or schemas that already exist- See yellow Labrador put into category for dogs-Accommodation - The new information doesn’t fit into the categories that already exist so you make a new category- See cow say doggy- October orangespumpkinsEthological Theory{Konrad Lorenz}  Imprinting - Rapid, innate learning within a critical period- Attachment to 1st moving object seen- Early following behavior of baby birds{John Bowlby}  Attachment Theory - Bond that forms with caregiver- Smiling, babbling, grasping, crying are built in social signals that encourage caregiver approachEclectic Theoretical Orientation- Selects and uses what is considered the best in each theoryThe Science & Study of Child development- Science is not defined by WHAT it investigates, but HOW it investigates it- Importance of research- The Scientific Method-


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