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FSU DEP 3103 - Final Exam (Test #4)

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DEP3103: Final Exam (Test #4)TV, Other Media, and Aggression1. On basic facts about the contents of TV shows and viewing habits of American Children…a. On Average, how many hours do American children spend with media (TV, movies, videos, computer games, internet) per week?i. ~40 hoursb. By what age are children spending at least 2 hours “glued” tothe screen?i. 2.5 to 3 years of agec. What percent of prime time TV shows contain some violence (murders, rape, assaults)?i. Fluctuates ~90%d. Saturday morning shows are geared towards children. Does the violence content of Saturday morning shows differ from that of prime time?i. Fluctuates 60-80% (avg. 70%); cartoons higher 90’s %e. Across all shows, what percent illustrate some negative consequences of violence (i.e., the person committing the violent act get punished?i. 15%2. Consequences of TV and other Mediaa. What are some potential positive consequences of exposure to educational or prosocial shows?i. Some educational shows (Sesame Street, Elec. Company) improve academic skills.ii. Some (Mr. Rogers) improve helping and sharing. b. Explain when positive effects are more likely to occur?i. Positive effects most likely to be seen when parent of teacher comments on important contentc. What are the potential negative effects of watching a lot of media, regardless of content?i. Viewing a lot of media (of any content) increases risks of1. Obesity, low school achievement, seizures, hand injuries, kids bug parents to buy unhealthy products.d. What are the potential negative effects of watching a lot of violent content? Are these effects well documented, or is this research still unclear?i. High levels of violent content causes an increase in child’s aggression, particularly if:1. Violence seems real (on cartoon, etc)2. Aggressor not punished or punishment delayed (aggressor not punished til end of show and theyperformed the aggression action at the beginning)3. Aggressor is attractive in some way (physically, or in a position of power, athletic, popular)4. Viewer is young5. Viewer has aggressive tendencies to begin with but effects not limited to previously aggressive kids.ii. Volumes of research show consistent findings across all kinds of studies. Findings also hold for diff. media (TV, movie, music CD, videos, games, etc.)e. What are conditions under which negative effects of watching violent content most likely to occur?i. Increases almost everyone’s tolerance for media & real-life violence, so people are less likely to report and try to stop real-life violence (bystander effect). 3. In class, we described several possible strategies for reducing the negative effects of media violence. Describe each of these and indicate which one(s) are most likely to be at least somewhat effective. a. Government censorship?i. Problems: who does it? Where does it stop?b. Industry self-regulation?i. Problems: Hasn’t worked, despite years of pressure. Industry says media violence doesn’t hurt kids.c. Parents forbid certain shows?i. Problems: makes kids want it more. They can see it attheir friend’s house.d. Parents limit amount & negotiate content?i. Good idea for older kids (when kids are very young, can totally control)e. V-Chip or other electronic device to control TVi. Problems: rules out some good shows, e.g., Schindler’s Listf. Co-Viewing violent shows/media to:i. Contrast reality vs. fantasyii. Point out negative consequences of violenceiii. Express disapproval of aggressioniv. Shown to be somewhat effectivev. Parents rarely do thisg. In contrast, co-viewing and NOT showing clear disapproval:i. INCREASES child’s aggressionh. Active attitude change interventionsi. Ex : children (9-10 yrs) produced an educational video, presumably to teach each other’s about the bad consequences of imitating media aggression. Video explained that media is not real and violence is bad. 1. Needs more research, but potentially helpful.4. Catharsis:a. Catharsis: taking frustrations/aggression out on an inanimate object.i. Examples: using a punching bag, throwing pillows around, b. How effective is it at reducing an individual’s tendency to express anger/aggression?i. Not effective, increases anger and is not good for society.5. Chapter 14 Questions:a. What is the definition of aggression? How does instrumental aggression differ from hostile aggression?i. Aggression: behavior that intentionally harms other people by inflicting pain or injury on them.1. Instrumental Aggression: quarreling and fightingwith others over toys and possessions. a. Preschool children are more likely to take part in this kind of aggression. 2. Hostile Aggression: directing aggressive behaviorat a particular person or group, criticizing, ridiculing, tattling on, or calling names. a. Older children are more likely to exhibit this kind of aggression.3. When older children recognize that another person wants to hurt them, they are more likely to retaliate by a direct assault on the tormenter than by an indirect attack on the aggressor’s possessions.b. Describe gender differences in aggression.i. Although there are few gender differences in infancy, by the time they are toddlers, boys are more likely than girls to instigate and be involved in aggressive incidents. This gender difference is evident not only across U.S. socioeconomic groups but in other countries. ii. Boys’ and girls’ aggressive patterns differ in important ways1. Boys are more likely than girls to retaliate after being attacked, and they are more likely to attack a male than a female. 2. Boys are more physically confrontational, and their expressions of physical aggression are more frequently than those of girls.3. Boys are less likely than girls to engage in negative self-evaluation, they are less likely to anticipate parental disapproval for acting aggressively, and they are also more likely to approve of aggression. 4. In attempting to resolve conflicts, girls tend to use such strategies as verbal objection and negotiation, methods that may take the escalation of a quarrel into overt aggression less likely. This does not mean that girls are not aggressive but rather that they use different tactics in achieving their goals.5. Especially in the elementary school years, girls often use what is called relational aggression, or the damaging or destruction of interpersonal relationships. In this girls attempt to exclude peers from group participation, besmirch other girls’ reputations,


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