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FSU DEP 3103 - Study Guide

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Child Psychology Spring 2012- Study Guide 1. For each of the 4 parenting styles, be able to thoroughly explain the following.a. Where does each style falls on the dimensions of emotionality & control?-Authoritative: High control, Warm & responsive -Authoritarian: High control, Cold & unresponsive -Permissive Indulgent: Low control, Warm & responsive -Uninvolved Neglecting: Low control, Cold & unresponsive b. Describe in detail each of the 4 styles. -Authoritative: If a child is complaining and acting very erratic/ out of control because they really want to go on a trip, they might explain their concerns, gather more information, and want to supervise. BUT, before they discuss anything, they will only talk to them when they are not acting like a brat anymore. They will NOT tolerate unacceptable behavior. Authoritarian: If a child is crying and saying, “You ruined my life!!” they may punish them for acting like a brat; won’t reinforce a child for acting in this way. They will then respond, “I said no, THAT’S IT, NO ARGUMENT OR TALKING ABOUT THE SITUATION”. Permissive: Do not set rules or follow through at all; they tolerate unacceptable behavior, but still want to make the child happy, “I’ll see what I can do”. They are likely to respond in a helpful, positive way despite the inappropriate behavior and they will do what they can to help, even if they can’t (due to financial issues, etc.) Uninvolved neglecting: does not really care about anything, not affectionate at all; they are not involved or show any concern and they do not follow through or set clear rules. c. Know which 2 styles are likely to use some form of punishment.Authoritative & authoritarian d. Describe the most probable child outcome from each style.Authoritative: Energetic-friendly- high self-concept, high achievement, high-self-control, low anti-social behavior, high attachmentAuthoritarian: Conflicted-irritable: anxious, low self-concept, don’t feel in control of life- look to others for approval and what to do, vulnerable to stress. Permissive: Impulsive-aggressive: non-compliant, low achievement, impulsive & aggress (usually not severe delinquency) Neglecting: Uninvolved: lack of attachments, low achievement, low social skills, truancy, precocious sex, delinquency e. Describe 2 notable exceptions to the rules described in “d” above.1.) With poor minorities in dangerous neighborhoods, the best adjustment is with AUTHORITARIAN 2.) Asian (e.g. Chinese) parents who are authoritarian tend to be viewed very positive & have positive child outcomes. **Authoritarian has different meaning in Asian culture, which values family & cultural standards over independence and internal standards.2. Discipline/Punishmenta. What is the definition of punishment or discipline?Negative consequences when a child misbehaves, NOT necessarily physical or severe.b. List and explain 4 general recommendations for using punishment effectively.1.) When possible, negative consequences should be immediate and consistent2.) Rules & consequences for breaking rules should be clear3.) Never threaten if you cannot follow through4.) Avoid all physical punishment a.) Current recommendation of National Academy of Pediatrics c. Explain each of the reasons given for avoiding all physical punishment?1.) Child gets aroused, so they are less likely to learn their lesson2.) Provides aggressive model-Leads to greatest aggression in kids when parents use it inconsistently and/or have a cold, negative relationship with the kid. 3.) Danger of it escalating into any kind of abused. Regarding the use of punishment during infancy (first 12-18 months), we discussed 4 issues that applied. Explain each of these.1.) Punishment is rarely appropriate before ~6 months old2.) When they are old enough to get into things, use:a firm “NO!” and redirect their attention3.) “Habit train” to engage in good behaviors. Make it easy for them to behave well & reinforce kids for their good behavior; START YOUNG!4.) When they start to “test limits” (~9 months)Remove from situation entirely e. Explain “time out.”1) From what are they being “timed out?”Beginning at 1.5-2 years, recommend “time out” from any positive reinforcement 2) Describe the rules for using time out effectively. We discussed roughly 5 or 6 rules.1.) Can be used till 7-8 years old (depending of child)2.) Punishing with boredom is effective 3.) Chair in hallway: no stimulation, parent’s watches throughout the timeout4.) Start with 1 minute per year of age. 8 years old= 8 minute T-O5.) MUST sit quietly6.) NO talking or explaining during T-O7.) Sending a kid to their room generally is NOT effective because it is not boring & associate bedroom with punishment.3) What is the proper timing for administering time out—that is, what comes first, second, etc.?1.) State offence: ex- you hit the dog, go to timeout!2.) Time-out served 3.) Rationale: ex- it is WRONG to hurt animals. Make the rationale appropriate to age. Give rationale LAST4.) Be calm- neither angry, nor affectionate. 4) For what ages (the youngest and oldest) is time out likely to be effective?Beginning at 1.2-2 years and can be used up until 7-8 years old.5) What are some strategies you can use if the child won’t serve his or her time out sentence?1.) Increase the time if they get up, but set time limits. Example: young: 12 minutes, older: 25 minutes. 2.) Remove privilege when and if they get up 3.) Hold (from behind)**Time out needs to be consistent and immediate 6) Explain why it is difficult to use time out in classrooms.f. When children are older, what is likely to be a more effective way to punish bad behavior than time out, and why?~5 years old- teens: Use REMOVAL OF PRIVILEGE (TV, dessert, car, internet)Why? This is not immediate (punishment is delayed, you have to move the rationale forward). g. How does the timing for privilege removal differ from the timing for time out, and why?Proper timing for privilege may require that punishment is delayed; ex: grounded on the weekend, so rationale may need to come before the punishment and you can also review it again after the punishment is given. 3. Marital conflict & divorcea. Marital conflict can potentially hurt children in 2 ways, one of which is more indirect and one of which is direct. Explain both.1.) Stress for parents -> poor parenting, which in turn leads to -> child problems (indirect)2.) Harms child when they witness the actual


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