New version page

FSU DEP 3103 - EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4 out of 11 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 11 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 11 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 11 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 11 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE6 Questions on Cognition4 Questions on Intelligence3 Questions on LanguageChapter 11- Self-Concept (Questions 13-21)1. Know the various concepts related to Self-recognition, self-understanding, and self-esteem discussed in the chapter and in the lecture. • Self-Recognition – being attentive and positive towards one’s image in a mirror (3 months of age); a central, more complete index of self-recognition—being able to recognize one’s physical features (2 years of age)• Self-Understanding – a child’s cognitive representation of the self; the substance & content of a child’s self-conception• Self-Esteem – a person’s self-worth or self-image; a person’s global evaluation of the self• Self-Concept – domain-specific evaluations of the self2. Know how self-recognition is assessed in infants and toddlers. • The “mirror technique” is used to assess self-recognition in infants and toddlers. • The mirror technique involves applying a dot of rouge to the infant’s face, placing the infant in front of a mirror, and observing whether or how often the infant touches the dot on his or her face. • Increased touching indicates self-recognition.3. What is the difference between self-esteem and self-concept• Self-Esteem is a global assessment of the self; it is one’s perception of his or her overall self-worth, whereas…• Self-Concept refers to domain-specific evaluations of the self (e.g., as an athlete, as a parent, as a friend, etc.,)4. Know the various characteristics that people use to describe themselves (varying on age… i.e. children vs. adolescents) • Preschool Children o describe themselves in concrete terms (e.g., “I live in a big house,” “I have two dogs.”)o often confuse self (personality), mind (thoughts), and bodyo distinguish themselves from others using physical descriptionso the active dimension is a central component of the self at this age (e.g., “I am the fastest runner!” “I play soccer.”o self-descriptions are typically unrealistically positive, as they don’t yet distinguish between their desired competence and their actual competence• Ages 4-5o Begin to use psychological traits and emotional terms to describe themselveso These descriptions continue to be unrealistically positive (e.g., “I am never sad!”)• Middle & Late Childhood1) Internal Characteristics / Psychological Characteristics: shift towards defining themselves in terms of internal characteristics (e.g., friendly, annoying)2) Social Descriptions: begin to include social aspects as references to social groups in their self-descriptions3) Social Comparison: self-understanding includes increasing reference to social comparison (e.g., “I’m a girl, not a boy.”)4) Real Self and Ideal Self: begin to distinguish between their real an ideal selves5) Realistic: self-evaluations become more realistic (e.g., “I am generally a good person, but sometimes I can be mean.”)• Adolescenceo Although adolescents increasingly compare themselves to others, they deny doing soo Personal Fables: an adolescent believes that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are more unique, wonderful, or awful than anyone else’so Imaginary Audience: the other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching/scrutinizing his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior – makes many teens self-consciouso Abstract & idealistic thinkingo Self-Consciousnesso Contradictions within the selfo The Fluctuating Selfo Real and Ideal Selves o Self-Integration: in late adolescence and emerging adulthood, self-understanding becomes more integrative, with the disparate parts of the self becoming more systematically pieced together5. What is perspective taking and why is it important?• Perspective Taking – the ability to assume others’ perspective and understand their thoughts & feelings• It is important because it is thought to be an integral determinant of whether children develop prosocial or antisocial attitudes and behavior6. Erik Erickson’s view of Psychosocial moratorium• Psychosocial Moratorium – the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their identity exploration• He believes that those who cope successfully with this crisis emerge with a new sense of self that is refreshing and acceptable• Those who do not successfully resolve this crisis suffer identity confusion7. James Marcia’s four status’ of identity:a. Identity Diffusion – the status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments; not only are they undecided about occupational & ideological choices, but they are also likely to show little interest in such mattersb. Identity Foreclosure – the status of individuals who have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis; occurs most of then when parents hand down commitments to their adolescents, usually in an authoritarian way, before adolescents have had a chance to explore different approaches, ideologies, and vocations on their ownc. Identity Moratorium – the status of individuals who are in the mist of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or only vaguely definedd. Identity Achievement – the status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and made a commitmentChapter 12- Gender (22-29)1. Know what the following are and how they differ:• Gender Role – a set of expectations that prescribes how females and males should act, think, and feel • Gender Identity – sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old• Gender Constancy – understanding that sex remains the same even though activities, clothing, and hair style might change2. What is Alice Eagly’s Social Role Theory and how does it relate to gender roles?• Social Role Theory – states that gender differences result from contrasting roles of women and men – social hierarchy and division of labor strongly influence gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurture• According to Eagly, as women adapted to roles with less power and less status in society, they showed more cooperativeness, less assertiveness, and less dominant profiles than men. • This reflects the application of gender roles (e.g., Women play the part of the understanding, cooperative homemaker, while the man’s role is to be the hardworking breadwinner).3. What is


View Full Document
Download EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?