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FSU PPE 3003 - Chapter 1

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Chapter 11. Define personality and understand each of the elements within the definition of personality.Personality: the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his interactions with, and adaptions to, the environment (including intrapsychic, physical, and social environment)2. Within the individual 3. That is organized and relatively enduring-Not a random collection of elements-Linked to one another in a coherent fashion-Enduring over time-Being angry in the moment does not mean you are an angryperson. 4. And that Influences-Shapes our lives-Not passive beings responding to external forces5. His or her interactions-Perceptions – how we see the world-Selections – manner in which we choose situations to enter-Evocations – reactions we produce in others6. And adaptions to-Functional – accomplishing goals, coping, adjusting2.Define trait-descriptive adjectives and average tendencies and understand how these interplay with psychological traits.-Trait-descriptive adjectives-About 20,000 of them-Just because someone has a personality trait, they will be on average more outgoing than someone who is shy but does not apply to all situations. 3. Define psychological mechanisms, be able to describe and identify the three essential ingredients of psychological mechanisms, and understand how certain personality traits are activated only under particular circumstances.-Mechanisms -Activated under particular conditions -Ex: Courage, bravery-3 ingredients: inputs, decision rules, and outputs -Inputs (environment) – danger (snake)-Decision rules (options) – if courageous, face it; if not, run-Outputs (behaviors) – RUN4.Be able to describe and identify the four types of interactions with situations (perceptions, selections, evocations, and manipulations).-Perceptions-How we see the world-Selections-Manner in which we choose situations to enter-Evocations-Reactions we produce in others -Manipulations-Ways we intentionally attempt to influence other people 5.Identify the types of questions that personality researchers ask. -1. How many traits are there?-2. How are the traits organized?-3. What are the origins of traits?-4. What are the correlations and consequences of traits?6.Describe and provide examples of the three levels of personality analysis.-1. Human nature (universals)-2. Individual and group differences (particulars)-3. Individual Uniqueness (uniqueness)7. Differentiate idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality research.-Nomothetic -Statistical comparisons of individuals or groups to identify human universals -Emphasizes comparability among individuals but sees people as unique in their combo of traits -Self report personality questions, factor analysis -*Most contemporary psychologists use this -Idiographic-Single person used to identify uniqueness - emphasizes traits differ from person to person-Uses case studies, biological information, diaries, etc.8. Describe and identify the six domains of knowledge in personality psychology.-Dispositional Domain-Deals with ways in which individuals differ from one another and therefore cuts across all other domains-Focus on number and nature of fundamental dispositions-Goal is to identify and measure the most important ways in which individuals differ from one another -Also interested in the origin of individual differences and how these develop over time -Biological Domain-Humans are collections of biological systems, and these systems provide building blocks for behavior, thought, and emotion-Behavioral genetics of personality-Ex: Are identical twins more alike in personality than fraternal twins?-Psychophysiology of personality-Ex: what are the neural mechanisms associated with personality?-Evolutionary personality psychology-What kinds of adaptive problems does personality help to solve?-Intrapsychic Domain-Deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside conscious awareness-Classic and modern versions of Freud's theory of psychoanalysis-Instinctual system - sexual and aggressive forces that drive behavior-Defensive mechanisms- repression, denial, projection-Motivations- power, achievement, and affiliation-Cognitive-Experiential Domain-Focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others-Self and self-concept-Ex: Do we see ourselves as good or evil?-Ex: Are past successes or failures prominent in our self views? -Social and Cultural Domain-Personality affects, and is affected by cultural and social contexts -Cultural differences between groups (e.g. in social acceptability of aggression)-Ex: Yanomamo (Venezuela) vs. Kung San (Botswana)-Ex: What personality features we display may depend on culture-Individual differences within cultures-Ex: dominant vs. submissive-Ex: anxious vs. depressed -Ex: sex and gender differences in personality-At human nature level of analysis, all humans have common set of concerns they struggle with in the social phase -Adjustment Domain-Personality plays key role in how we cope, adapt, and adjust to events in daily life-Personality linked with important health outcomes and problems in coping and adjustment-Linked to heart disease-Health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, risk-taking)-How long we live -Personality disorders-Deepen our understanding of "normal" personality -Discuss the three key purposes of scientific theories, and be able to distinguish theories from beliefs.-The Role of Personality Theory-Personality research is often informed by personality theory-Theory has several key purposes-Serves as a guide for researchers-Organizes known findings-Makes predictions about behavior and psychological phenomena that no one has yet documented or observed -Describe and identify the five standards for evaluating personality theory.-Standards for Evaluating Personality Theory-Comprehensiveness-Does the theory explain all the facts?-Heuristic Value-Does the theory provide a guide to new discoveries?-Testability-Does the theory provide precise, empirical predictions?-Parsimony-Does the theory contain few assumptionsChapter 2(Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design)1. Describe and provide examples of the four sources of data collected by personality psychologists: Self-report data (S-data), Observer-report data (O-Data), Test-data (T-data), and


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