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FSU PPE 3003 - PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY EXAM

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PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 5!Chapter 12: Cognition and PersonalityUnderstand how the story of Amadou Diallo demonstrates how important cognitive interpretations can be.- Amadou Diallo approached by police officers that wanted to question him; he reached into his wallet and police thought he was reaching for a weapon, they fired 41 shots at him; how people process information can cause really tragic consequences- African American vs. White Targets- Holding a gun vs. another objects; Participant has a lower threshold for shooting African American target compared to white targetsUnderstand the basic findings of the Correll et al. study that was discussed in class.- African Americans vs. White Targets- Holding a gun vs. another object; Participant has a lower threshold for shooting African American target compared to white target- Cognitive Approaches: Focuses on differences in how people process informationKnow and be able to differentiate the three levels of cognition.- Perception: imposing order on sensory info; people see the world different based on our sensory and perceptual systems- Interpretation: making sense of explaining events of the world- Goals and Beliefs: a person’s standard for evaluating selves and othersUnderstand how the Embedded Figures Test analyzes field dependence-independence.- Embedded Figures Test (EFT): How many animals can you find in a certain picture? DEALS WITH PERCEPTION- Field Dependent: have trouble locating hidden figures, tend to rely more on social information, and tend to favor social sciences and education; see the bigger picture rather than the details; oriented towards people- Field Independent: easily located hidden figures, tend to be better at ignoring distractions, and tend to favor sciences and engineering; ability to focus on details despite clutter of background info; better able to screen our distracting info and focus on taskKnow and understand the three dimensions of explanatory style.DEALS WITH INTERPRETATION - Internal/External: - Internal (Explanatory Style): Something pertaining to you such as your lack of skill- External (Explanatory Style): Something pertaining to the environment- Stable/Unstable:- Stable (Explanatory Style): Cause of the event is something permanent and long lasting- Unstable (Explanatory Style): Cause of the event is something temporary- Global/Specific:- Specific (Explanatory Style): Cause that affects only the particular situation- Global (Explanatory Style): Cause that affects everythingKnow how explanatory style is related to optimism-pessimism- Pessimistic Explanatory Style: Combo: Internal, Stable, and Global- Optimistic Explanatory Style: Combo: External, Unstable, and SpecificBe able to define “locus of control”- Locus of Control: Describes people’s interpretations of responsibility for events- External Locus of Control: Generalized expectancies that events are outside of one’s control; Fate, Luck, Chance; More resigned to conditions “as they are”, decreased efforts to deal with health, decreased levels of psyche adjustment, have a greater sense of satisfaction in a non-responsive environment- Internal Locus of Control: Generalized expectancies that events are under one’s control and that one is responsible for major life outcomes; better academic achievement, better interpersonal relations, greater effort to learn, positive attitudes to exercise, lower cigarette smoking, decreased HTN and heart attacksBe able to explain learned helplessness- Learned Helplessness: Lack of influence in one circumstance affecting future judgments of ability to influence; when subjected to unpleasant and inescapable circumstances, animals (and humans) become passive and accepting of a situation, in effect learning to be helplessBe able to define “self-efficacy”- Self Efficacy: Belief that one can execute a plan of action to achieve one’s goalsBe able to explain Dweck’s theory of mastery orientation- Entity- you do not change- Incremental- things can changeUnderstand the main ways that intelligence is conceptualized (general vs. domain specific, achievement vs. aptitude)- Intelligence: Application of cognitive skill and knowledge to solve problems, learn and achieve goals valued by individuals and the culture- Domain-Specific Intelligence: Measuring mechanical ability for a mechanical job rather than measuring cognitive intelligence- Achievement View of Intelligence: Attainment of Education- Aptitude View of Intelligence: Potential to Know and LearnBe able to explain what emotional intelligence is and how it differs from traditional views of intelligence- Emotional Intelligence: predictive of life outcomes- Goleman argued that traditional IQ tests don’t predict important life outcomes (job success, quality of marriage)- Emotional Intelligence has 5 abilities: - Self-Awareness (of one’s emotions, feelings, etc.)- Emotion Regulation- Self-Control- Ability to decode the social/emotional cues of others- LeadershipKnow the information from Chapter 12 that was not discussed in class (and how it relates to the info discussed in class)http://quizlet.com/17413486/personality-psychology-ch12-18-flash-cards/Chapter 13: Emotions and PersonalityUnderstand the 3 components of emotions- Distinct Subjective Feeling- How does it feel to be angry? How does it feel to be afraid?- Associated with bodily changes- Heart rate, facial expressions, muscle tension- Distinct Action Tendencies- Anger might lead to aggressive action. Sadness might lead one to seek social supportUnderstand how emotions are adaptive and be able to provide examples- Disgust prevents people from eating harmful things- Anger can prevent people from being taken adv. Of- Sadness can signal a need for social support- Fear can prevent people from doing dangerous things Know and understand the 2 approaches to studying emotions- Categorical Approach: There are only a few “primary” emotions that are distinct; different theorists use different criteria for identifying primary emotions- Dimensional Approach: Emotions are not distinct, rather they exist on a continuum; two dimensions: activation and pleasantness (AKA arousal and valance)Be able to characterize emotions based on the dimensions of activation and pleasantness-High activation vs. Low activation-Pleasant vs. Unpleasant- Examples: Boredom- low activation, unpleasant Excitement- high activation, pleasant Understand the basic ways in which people differ in their emotional


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