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FSU PPE 3003 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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Psychology of Personality Exam 2 Study GuideChapter 3 Objectives (Textbook material is in red) -Know the two perspectives on traits covered in lecture and be able to describe how they are different Traits = Internal Causal Properties Traits are internal states that have the potential to lead to behavior Ex: Deirdre has a desire for material things or that Dominick wants power over others. Internal in the sense that individuals carry their desires and needs from one situation to the next. Causal in the sense that they explain the behavior of the individuals who possess them.  Their internal desires or needs influence their external behavior, causing them to act in certain ways Traits = Purely Descriptive Summaries Traits describe people’s tendencies to behave a certain way No traits without behavior Act Frequency Formulation They make no assumptions about internality or causality.  Ex: George might galre at other men who talk to his girlfriend and insist that she wear his ring, and require her to spend all of her free time with him. We could describe George as jealous which would be an accurate summary of his expressed behavior without making any assumptions  -Know and be able to describe the three approaches to identifying the mostimportant personality traits Lexical – all important traits are apparent in language All traits listed and defined in the dictionary form the basis of describing differences among people Lexical Hypothesis: all important individual differences have become encoded within the natural language Two criteria for identifying important traits Synonym frequency If an attribute has not merely one or two trait adjectives to describe it but rather many words, then it is a more important dimension of individual difference (More synonyms = more important) Cross-cultural universality  The more important an individual difference in human transactions, the more languages will have a term for it The more a trait appears across languages the more important it is. If a trait is only seen in a one or a fewlanguages then it may only have local importance Something to keep in mind: -The three approaches to identifying the most important traits (lexical, statistical, and theoretical) are not mutually exclusive. That is, the approaches can be combined. For example, the Big 5 was developed using the lexical and statistical approaches.  Statistical – give people questionnaires and analyze using factor analysis Factor analysis Identifies groups of items that go together but tend not to covary with other groups of items.  Ex: A spatial metaphor; the office locations of physicists, psychologists, and sociologists on your campus. Although these may be spread out, in general the offices of the psychologists tend to be closer to one another than they areto the offices of the physicists or sociologists. And the physicists are closer to one another than they are to the sociologists or psychologists. Thus, a factor analysis might reveal three clusters of professors. Useful in reducing the large array of diverse personality traits into a smaller and more useful set of underlying factors. It provides a means for organizing the thousands of personality traits Theoretical – a theory determines which traits are important Ex: to a Freudian, it is critical to measure “the oral personality” and “the anal personality” because these represent important, theory-driven constructs. Or, to a self-actualization theorist such as Maslow, it is critical to measure individual differences in the degree to which people are motivated to self-actualize. They theory, in short, strictly determines which variables are important -Know what a taxonomy is Classification System Goal: Identify & name groups within a subject Ex: Periodic table or classification of animals and plants -Know which characteristics are studied under Eysenck’s model of personality and be able to describe each Eysenck developed a model of personality based on traits that he believedwere highly heritable and had a likely psychophysiological foundation.  Figure 3.1 in the textbook shows the levels of Eysenck’s hierarchical model, with each super-trait at the top and narrower trits at the second level. Subsumed by each narrow trait, however, is a third level – that of habitual acts. For example, one habitual act subsumed by sociable might be talking on the phone; another might be taking frequent breaks to socialize with other students 1. Psychotism (P)  High in psychoticism: Solitary Lack empathy (insensitive to pain and suffering of others) Cruel/inhumane Aggressive Prefer strange/unusual things Impulsive Antisocial 2. Extraversion-Introversion (E) High in extraversion: Like to party! Have many friends Need people around to talk to Practical jokers Carefree High activity level 3. Neuroticism (N) High in neuroticism Worry a lot Anxious/depressed Psychosomatic symptoms Over-reactive w/negative emotions -Know the two dimensions of the Wiggins Circumplex Wiggins was primarily concerned with interpersonal traits and carefully separated these from the other categories of traits  The model provides an explicit definition of interpersonal behavior It specifies the relationships between each trait and every other trait within the model It alerts investigators to gaps in investigations of interpersonal behavior In sum, the Wiggins circumplex model provides an elegant map of major individual differences in the social domain. Drawback is that it only has two dimensions (Love (x-axis) and Status (y-axis)) -Know what the most widely accepted model for personality is The five-factor model is the most widely used taxonomy of personality Measured by the TIPI Five-factor: Empirical Evidence Most widely accepted Found by many researchers using different samples Has been replicated over 50+ years & in many languages Not due to culture Replicated using different item formats -Be able to list and apply the five personality characteristics recognized as the Big 5 Five broad factors: Extraversion Talkative-silent Sociable-reclusive Adventurous-cautious Open-secretive Agreeableness Good natured-irritable Cooperative-negativistic Mild/gentle-headstrong Not jealous-jealous


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