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FSU PPE 3003 - Exam 2 Learning Objectives

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Exam 2 Learning Objectives From Class and the BookLecture 1(1): Conditioning1. Know the differences between classical and operant conditioninga. Classical conditioning: A form of simple learning whereby an unconditioned stimulus paired with a conditioned stimulus, originally not likely to evoke a response, comes to be associated with the unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually does evoke a conditioned response.i. UCS-> UCRii. CS+UCS ->UCRiii. Finally: CS -> CRb. Operant Conditioning: learning influenced by reinforcement and punishment through which behavior is modified by its consequences. Freely emitted behaviors will increase when followed by positive consequences (reinforcement) or decreased when followed by negative consequences (punishment)2. Know the terms and examples from page 72.a. Positive Reinforcer: presentation of a stimulus after a response which strengthens the response.i. A 1st grade teacher’s praise for a child’s obedient behavior leads to increased obedience in the futureb. Negative Reinforcer: the removal of a stimulus after a response, strengthens the response.i. Constant criticism from your mother about smoking cigarettes stops when you quit smoking. Removal of the criticism = reward for stopping smokingc. Positive Punishment: presentation of a stimulus after a response, weakens the responsei. A speeding motorist is given a ticket for going too fast. The ticket = punishment, which leads to less speeding by the motorist in the futured. Negative Punishment: the removal of a stimulus after a response, weakens the response.i. A teen who repeatedly breaks curfew is grounded. The positive reinforcer of going out with her friends is removed, causing the teen in subsequent weeks to come home in time.OTHER CONCEPTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONINGe. Extinction: a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced; eventually the behavior decreases and drops to baseline levelsi. Child no longer says “please/thank you” at the dinner table because the parents no longer reinforce the behavior with smiles and complimentsf. Shaping: getting the organism to emit a complex response by reinforcing successive approximations to the behaviors that make up the complex responsei. Little league coach teaching a child to hit a ball by praising many simple behaviors ofbatting. At 1st, child is reinforced for being in the correct stance, then for swinging the bat, then finally hitting the ball. Finally, praise is only delivered when child showsthe entire complex process of actually hitting the ballg. Continuous reinforcement: delivering reinforcement after every instance of a particular response. Behavior submitted to a continuous reinforcement schedule is learned rapidlyi. Every time a man tells his girlfriend he loves her, she kisses himh. Partial reinforcement: Not reinforcing every instance of behavior, but rather delivering reinforcement intermittently according to a particular schedule. 2 types:i. Interval reinforcement schedules: administer reinforcement after a particular periodof time1. Example: A worker receives a paycheck once every 2 weeksii. Ratio reinforcement schedules: administer reinforcement after a particular # of responses1. Example: A computer salesman receives a bonus after he sells 100 computersiii. *Behavior submitted to partial reinforcement schedules is more resistant to extinction than continually reinforced behavior.i.3. What is observational learning?a. Learning by watching or reading about what other people do.4. What are the steps necessary for observational learning? Be able to recognize examples.a. Attentionb. Retentionc. Motor Reproductive Processesd. Motivational processes5. What is social ecology?a. The many different environmental contexts that influence a person’s behavior and shape his or her life.6. What is a microcontext? What is a macrocontext? Be able to recognize examples.a. Microcontext: Immediate environmental influencesb. Macrotext: social class, gender, race, culture, historical contexts in which we live.7. What is a meme? (non-pop culture version) Be able to recognize examples. How are memes like genes?a. “An idea, behaior, style or usage that spreads from person to person within a culture”b. Culture survives longer if they encompass a belief that other cultures are inferior and should be converted or killed.i. English languageii. Democracyiii. Christianity8. What are the differences between Easter and Western cultures when describing themselves?a. Relationships vs. characteristicsb. Context-dependencec. Special-ness9. What are the two fundamental cultural tasks?a. Be close to others (interdependence)b. Maintain independence (independence)10. Recognize examples of independent and interdependent behavior. Are Eastern cultures or Western cultures more independent? Which is more interdependent? How does this relate to individualistic and collectivistic cultures?a. Independencei. Assert what you wantii. Assume everyone around you is asserting what they wantb. Interdependencei. Try to accommodate what others wantc. Non-Western, Asian cultures: Focus more in interdependenced. Western Cultures: focus more in independencei. Individualistic: independentii. Collectivist: interdependent11. What are the criticisms of cultural differences in self-concept?a. Meta-analysis: small effect size of differencesb. May be over simplification12. What is self-enhancement? How do cultures differ in self-enhancement?a. Tendency to describe and present oneself positivelyi. Americans maintain a more positive evaluation of selfii. Japanese individuals are self enhance on teamwork13. How does social class relate to personality?a. Loser class parents: emphasize obedience to authorityb. Higher class: emphasize self direction and non-conformityi. Stems from jobs expected for children14. What are the two most universal personality dimensions? Why are these important?a. Dominance/submissionb. Friendliness/hostility15. Which of the big five are culturally universal? What variations of the big five exist in other cultures?a. Surgencyb. Agreeablenessc. Emotional stabilityd. ConscientiousnessLecture 1(2): Personality over Time1. What is a longitudinal study?a. Taking multiple tests of the same group of people over time2. List and describe the three kinds of stability. Be able to recognize examples of all threea. Rank order of Stabilityi. Maintenance of an individuals position within a group1. conservatismb. Mean level of Stabilityi. Constancy of a level in


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