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FSU PPE 3003 - Individuals’ Motives and Goals

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What do people want: The psychoanalytic view (pt 1)Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)Physician and researcher (nervous system)Psychoanalysis first mentioned in 1895Collected works span 24 volumesThe Freudian Psyche:The IdThe unruly, demanding, gratification-seeking, instinct-driven source of our psychic energy and our two primary drives:Eros (love, earlier called the pleasure principle)Driven for pleasure, sexual gratification, and life-self-preservationThanatos (death/ aggression instinct)Drive for aggression, violence, pain-infliction and self-destructionDidn’t appear in Freud’s thinking until after WWIIUnconscious, unconcerned w/ reality constraints & unreasonableToday we call it “unconscious” things like “implicit” or “automatic” – its realThe SuperegoInternalized representation of parental and societal rules, normsOur “conscience”Constantly tells Ego what it should and should not be doingAlso unyielding, inflexible, & unconcerned with reality constraintsEx) Teach says “don’t hit others” and parents say “protect your sister”Source of guilt – “moral anxiety”The EgoOur conscious experience of ourselvesThe negotiator of the demands of 3 “tyrants”:Id, Superego, and RealityThe Ego must:Navigate the external world to ensure self-preservation, and the internal world to reduce psychological tensionHealthy personality development strives toward some Ego-IdealA self that is able to continually satisfy the demands of the 3 tyrantsWhen this “coping” breaks down, we see pathological behaviorThe role of defense mechanismsConflict between the three tyrants creates anxiety (neuroses) for the ego, which is dealt with through defense mechanismsWe are sometimes able to deal with anxiety/conflict in “healthy” ways:Wish fulfillmentExpressing and satisfying desires through imagination and fantasyEx) dreams, paintings, stories, daydreamsSublimation“Channeling” desire into more socially acceptable & reality-appropriate avenuesEx) Sport- Thanatos, friends lovers and pets – ErosDisplacementTemporary shifting the impulse to a more appropriate or accessible object/otherEx) aggression toward father turns into aggression toward dog/siblingLess ideal defense mechanisms:The prior do a more permanent job of satisfying the three tyrants, others do a more temporary job which leads to tension build upWhy less ideal?Tension isn’t resolved, only ignoredFree association therapy and dream analysis are meant to identify repressed desires and let them “play out” in the therapy session (transference)RepressionSuppress, deny, ignore, or actively forget some anxiety-holding event or desireEx) blocking out a memory of an embarrassing eventProjectionAttributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts and desires to othersEx) don’t date him, he hates meReaction formationAvidly adopting or over-emphasizing the OPPOSITE of an anxiety inducing desireExpressing animosity toward someone (when one really wants union)Rationalization (biggest of them all)Reinterpreting and justifying our own behavior or desires in a way that make them seem more acceptable to usRationalization is a powerful tool, but a double-edged sword:It is central to “emotion-focused coping” – reinterpreting negative events in ways we can live with, that minimizes anxietyAlso inclines us to persist in potentially harmful and damaging relationships and patterns of behaviorWhat do people want: The humanistic view (pt 2)Humanistic vs. psychoanalytic approachesLike psychoanalysis, humanism originally grew out of the clinical side of psychologyBut, very different causes and treatments of mental illnessAlso, very different views on potential for wellnessPsychoanalytic approach:Theorized primary source of mental disorder:Anxiety caused by conflicts between 3 tyrantsMental illness arises when coping strategies (defense mechanisms) break downEx) Thanatos has no satisfying outlet and thus turns self-destructiveGoal of therapy: when coping stops working, help the patient bring unconscious conflicts to conscious awareness in order to work through them togetherVia transferenceHumanistic approach:Theorized primary source of mental disorder:Still caused by “conflict,” but not Tyrants-Ego conflictConflict: denial and distortion of one’s genuine feelings and desires, usually because one believes others disapproveCarl Rogers called this “conditional regard” from othersI’ll love and accept you, but only if you are a certain wayEx) Gender norm expectations & Roger’s own repressive childhoodFurther cause by having no genuine sense of purpose or meaningHumanistic therapyPrimary goal of therapy:Restore trust in our own desires and perception of realityOperated on the assumption that people are fundamentally goodTherapist must offer Empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard to help client achieve self-understanding and self-acceptanceHelp to facilitate “self-actualization”Is about being authentic, compassionate (to self and others) & strivingThe client must identify their own needs & meaningLeads to the “…and how does that make you feel” stereotype of therapyMaslow’s TheoryAbraham Maslow: somewhat more complicatedMaslow’s theory of proponent needsSelf-actualization can only be worked toward once more basic needs are metPhysiologicalSafetyLove-belongingEsteemSelf-actualizationThe Jonah ComplexSelf-actualization can be inhibited by the “Jonah Complex” – fear of successWith great goals comes great responsibilityWe fear loss of controlWe fear attention and scrutiny of othersWe fear letting others down if we failCan lead to self-handicappingSetting oneself up for failure so that there is a ready-made excuseSelf determination theory3 basic needs must be satisfied to foster psychological healthRelatednessThe universal want to interact, be connected to and experience caring for othersAlso called “mattering”Competence (mastery)Refers to fostering the skills necessary to be effective in navigating one’s environmentsAutonomyIs the universal urge to be causal agents of our own life and act in accord with our beliefs and valuesAutonomy: the value of intrinsic motivationOver-justification effect: the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish once it is extrinsically rewardedEx) Puzzle study (Deci 1971)Subjects played with puzzlesOne group then paid to playLater measured time spent“Paid” group played less when reward was removedAttributed their behavior to an extrinsic


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